There are two types of test used to make educational decisions i. e. Norm Referenced (NRT)
And Criterion Referenced Test (CRT).
1. Norm Referenced Test:
This test tells us where a student stands compared to other students. In other words, certain kinds of test data help us determine a student’s “place” or “rank” performance from other, similar students. A test that yields this kind of information is called a norm-referenced test (NRT). Such information is useful only for certain types of decisions.
2. Criterion Referenced Test:
Information provided by these tests tells us about a student’s level of proficiency or mastery of some skill or set of skills. This is accomplished by comparing a student’s performance to a standard (criterion). A test that yields this kind of information is called a criterion-referenced test (CRT). Such information helps us decide whether a student needs more or less work on some skill or set of skills. It says nothing about the student’s place or rank compared to other students and, hence, it too is useful only for certain types of decisions.
Common Characteristics of NRT & CRTs:
· Both require specification of the achievement domain to be measured.
· Both require a relevant and representative sample of test terms items.
· Both use the same types of test items.
· Both use the same rules for item writing (except for item difficulty).
· Both are judged by the same qualities of goodness (validity and reliability).
· Both are useful in educational measurement.
Test Item Development
Points to be considered by a Teacher
· What are the conditions of paper format and curriculum in selection of learning outcomes in Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) and Open Ended Questions (OEQs)?
· “Selection of Learning Outcomes” according to weight-age in Curriculum and in Model Paper.
· Before developing MCQs and OEQs, learning outcomes should be classified in two groups.
· Learning Outcomes which could be tested using MCQs in a better way.
· Learning Outcomes which could be tested using OEQs in a better way.
· Paper developer should read concept and learning outcome and then write stem of question.
Construction of MCQs
Instruction for Writing Stem:
· Stem statement should be relevant to learning outcomes.
· Stem should be brief but comprehensive, meaningful and understandable.
· Negative statements should be avoided in stem.
· Stem statement should be neutral.
· Stem should be independent so that students may not get help from other questions.
· Stem statement should not match with the text written in the textbook.
Instruction for Writing Options:
· All options should be written using logic.
· Option should be related to main concept.
· Order of correct option should be different in different questions.
· Order of options can also be used for adjustment of difficulty level.
· All options should be equally attractive for hit & trail maker.
· In options, avoid lifting phrases directly from text.
· Write correct option and then search plausible distracters. Finally shuffle correct option and distracters.
· Option should be about the same length and parallel in grammatical structure.
Construction of OEQs
Try to prepare super items. Super items are those questions which have at least three level at a time i. e. uni-structural, multi-structural, relational and extended abstract.
Teachers have to prepare the following documents;
1. Design Matrix
2. Question Paper
3. Instructions for Candidates
4. Instructions for Conduct
5. Rubrics / Scoring Procedures
Format of the Paper for Monthly Test
· Islamiyat 5 MCQs (1-5) +1 OEQ (41)
· English 5 MCQs (6-10) +1 OEQ (42)
· Mathematics 5 MCQs (11-15) +1 OEQ (43)
· Urdu 5 MCQs (16-20) +1 OEQ (44)
· Science 5 MCQs (21-25) +1 OEQ (45)
· Social Studies 5 MCQs (26-30) +1 OEQ (46)
· Arabic / Computer 5 MCQs (31-35) +1 OEQ (47)
· Optional 5 MCQs (36-40) +1 OEQ (48)
Total Questions in Paper: MCQs (40) + OEQs (8)
· For MCQs –every right answer has 1.5 marks.
· For OEQs use SOLO taxonomy as rubrics e. g.
· Uni level answer = 1 mark
· Between Uni and Multi = 2 marks
· Multi level answer = 3 marks
· Between Multi and Relational = 4 marks
· Relational level answer = 5 marks
Not : In monthly assessment maximum marks for one OEQ are 5.
· To ensure validity
· Selection of learning outcomes according to Curriculum.
· Selection of Outcomes according to weight- age in Curriculum.
· Selection of levels of learning outcomes based on normal curve.
Format of Design Matrix:
· Topic Level of L. O. Weight – age in Actual
in Book U + M + R Curriculum weight- age adjusted