Communication Approach (CLT)
Contextual of Communicative Approach:
- The communicative approach pursues to make expressive communication and language uses a full concentration on all classroom activities.
- The method came as a reaction against the Grammar-based-approaches such as the audio-lingual method and Grammar-Translation Methods of target language instruction that ignored that the goal of language learning is communicative competence.
- The inverters of the most language teaching methods and theirs primary purpose is to make it communicate using the target language. A large number of these methodologists emphasize the acquisition of linguistic or vocabulary structures. Proponents of the Communication Approach recognize that structure and vocabulary are important. However, they feel that preparation for communication will not be enough if only what is taught. Students may know the rules of language use, but they will not be able to use the language.
- When we communicate, we use language to fulfill certain functions, such as accepting, persuading or making promises. Moreover, we perform these functions in a social context. A speaker will choose a particular way of expressing his argument, not only based on his intentions and level of emotion, but also to whom he is speaking and what his relationship is with that person; This can be more direct in a discussion with a friend than with his employer.
- Moreover, because communication is a process, students do not know enough just about the form, meaning and function of the target language. Students should be able to apply this knowledge to meaning negotiation. Meaning becomes clear through interaction between speaker and listener (or reader and writer). The listener provides feedback to the speaker on whether he or she understands what he or she is saying and, if necessary, tries to retransmit its meaning.
The Principles of the Communicative Approach
- If possible, “native language” as used in the actual context should be introduced.
- Being able to understand the meaning of a speaker or author is part of the ability to communicate.
- The target language is not only the purpose of the study but a classroom communication tool.
- Functions can have many different forms of language. Since the focus of this course is the use of actual language, various forms of linguistics are presented together.
- Students must work with language at the discourse or suprasentential level (paragraph above). They need to learn integrity and consistency, the nature of language that connects sentences.
- Games are important because they share some of the same features as real communicative events – exchanges have a purpose. Also, the speaker gets immediate feedback from the listener on whether he or she managed to communicate. Working in small groups maximizes the amount of communicative practice they receive.
- Students should be given the opportunity to express their ideas and opinions.
- Mistakes are tolerated and seen as a natural consequence of the development of communication skills. Student success is determined by their accuracy and fluency.
- One of the primary responsibilities of a teacher is to create situations that tend to enhance communication.
- Communicative interactions encourage collaborative relationships between students. It gives students an opportunity to negotiate meaning.
- The social context of a communicative event is necessary to give meaning to an expression.
- Learning to use language forms correctly is an important part of communicative competence.
- Teachers act as consultants while conducting communication activities.
- In communication, the speaker has the choice not only to say what, but also how to say it.
- Students learn grammar and vocabulary from the function, situational context, and role of the person speaking.
- Students should be given the opportunity to develop language interpretation strategies because I am actually used by native speakers.
The role of Teachers in Communicative Approaches:
- Determine the communicative context of the lesson.
- Manage Learners and create meaningful opportunities to communicate.
- Maintain the learners` motivation.
- He is responsible to create a pleasant and safe environment in the classroom.
- Give instructions and organize the effective activities.
- Monitor learning and organize activities
Pros & Cons of Communication Approach:
- Pros: The communicative approach is more students oriented because it is based on the needs and interests of the students.
- The Communication approach aims to personalize and localize language and tailor it to students ’interests. Meaningful language is always easier for students to maintain.
- It tries to use natural resources and be more engaging and motivating to children.
- Children acquire grammar rules as a condition of speaking, so they are more efficient and effective.
- Cons: It is not sufficient to focus attention to the situation in which teaching and learning takes place.
- Communicative approaches can usually be inferred as follows: If teachers understand learners, then he will have good communication with learner, but native speakers of the target language may have great difficulty understanding instructor.
- Another disadvantage is that the Communicative approach focuses on smoothness, not accuracy. This approach does not focus on error reduction, in its place creating such situations where in learners are left to use their own tools to solve communication problems with each other. Consequently, they can produce inconsistent and grammatical sentences during their conversation.