Curriculum and Teaching Strategies

Curriculum and Teaching Strategies for Inclusive Education


  • For effective inclusion there is always need for necessary adaptation in the curriculum and teaching strategies to meet the diverse needs of the children in the schools.
  • Small modifications in the learning methodology and evaluation process improve the participation and retention of the children with special needs.

Curriculum and Teaching Strategies for Inclusive Education

  • In addition, adjustments in teaching especially adopting collaborative approaches in the classroom enhance the interest and interaction among the students with different needs and caliber.

Learning Outcomes

  • Adapt curriculum and teaching strategies in inclusive settings.

Key Concepts

  • Curriculum is a set of guiding principles, which help the teachers decide on the content to be taught.
  • Inclusive teaching strategies are those teaching techniques that help all students to learn and engage with the curriculum in the classroom.

Curriculum and Teaching Strategies for Inclusive Education

  • Teacher will use a variety of teaching strategies across all curriculum areas.


End of day/Session Quiz


  1. Curriculum Adaptations
      • Curriculum adaptation is a process of adapting regular curriculum to meet the individual needs of students with special needs.
      • You have to know WHAT you are trying to teach (Curriculum) before you can change HOW you teach it.
      • Teacher can make accommodations and modification in the curriculum.

Curriculum and Teaching Strategies for Inclusive Education

      • Accommodations are used when the student is expected to learn the same curriculum content. But the student may be taught in a different way.
      • Teacher can teach spellings by using alphabets in blocks instead of asking student to learn it from book.
      • Modification are used when the student is expected to learn less or different curricular content.
      • This could require the modification of assignments, tests, worksheets and other materials in the classroom.
      • Example: students can be given hints in worksheets / questions to help them doing that.


  • Identify and write the names of given different forms of transport original worksheet,

Curriculum and Teaching Strategies for Inclusive Education

1. Objectives

Adaptation in objectives means adaptation in curriculum objectives according to special children included in inclusive classrooms.

2. Content

Adaptation in content means simplifying or adapting curriculum according to children with special needs. There are different types of content adaptation.

a. Simplification

Simplification of written material by substituting difficult words, reducing the length of sentence and by using simple language and you can delete the diagrams or pictures from the text.

b. Minimizing

Reducing the length of written pages or paragraphs e.g. an essay of four pages could be reduced to one page for child with special needs.

Curriculum and Teaching Strategies for Inclusive Education

c. Alternative

Allowing students to perform another task instead of a difficult task


According to student`s need:

    1. Change in a way of communicating pairing with students
    2. Adaptation in instructional material if the topic is based on concrete reality

4. Evaluation

According to student`s needs

      1. Change in test items
      2. Change in examination procedures
      3. Changes in grading criteria
      4. Teaching Strategies for Inclusive Education
      5. Cooperative Learning (Instructional management in inclusive class)

Cooperative learning is an example of shared instructional strategies. It encourages students to learn in small groups. The two major goals of cooperative learning are to enhance individual students` understanding and retention of whatever is being taught through group work and the second goal is to develop positive attitude toward subject matter and towards learning in general.

Use following strategies for group work:

      1. Assign students to mixed groups
      2. Make small groups of optimal size (4-6 students)
      3. Make groups in a way that will result in a high level of participation and cohesiveness in a group.
      4. Arrange seating in a circle so that all students can see each other
      5. Establish rules for peer involvement in groups
      6. Provide adequate space between groups to minimize distractions
      7. Include student evaluation and reflection of group performance
      8. Teaching Techniques to Increase Inclusion
      9. Peer Mediated Instruction and Interventions (PMII)

This involves students working together to support each other. It includes peer modeling, peer initiation training, peer networking and peer tutoring

  1. Peer Tutoring

Peer tutoring strategies involve pairs of students in teaching and learning on one to one basis. For example in an inclusive classroom we can make pair of two students. A student without any learning problem can act as a tutor for a student with a special need.

  1. Team Teaching

Team teaching is used as instructional strategy in an inclusive classroom. In team teaching, two or more teachers share the instructional role equally. It is particularly effective when teaching a topic that involves a lot of interaction, Or possible role play. It helps you to present a topic in more depth. The team members are professionals both from special and general education. The team members must be working towards the same goals. They must have good communication skills and must be competent in dealing with children with special; needs.

  1. Co-teacher

Co-teacher is a collaborative arrangement between school professionals in which they create solutions and plans, teach and modify lessons together. Through co-teaching, school professionals jointly create units, plan lessons, modify lessons for individual needs and carry out classroom instructions. The intention is to create a classroom community in which all students are valued members and to develop innovative teaching strategies that would not be possible if only one teacher was present. There are many benefits of co-teaching including increased flexibility to meet academic needs of students with and without disabilities.


  • Divide participants into groups of different subjects, English, Urdu, Math etc. ask each group select a text book chapter and work through the process of identifying the MUIST KNOW content be minimized or simplified or presented to help students with special needs.

Follow up

  • Develop a Science/ English/ Math’s lesson plan for a student with hearing impairments. Includes all teaching strategies/ activities that can be facilitating learning.

Curriculum and Teaching Strategies for Inclusive Education




4 thoughts on “Curriculum and Teaching Strategies”

  1. Hey there! I know this is somewhat off topic but I was wondering which blog platform are you using for this site?
    I’m getting tired of WordPress because I’ve had problems with
    hackers and I’m looking at alternatives
    for another platform. I would be great if you could point
    me in the direction of a good platform.

Leave a Comment