Four periods of the History of English language
In the history of English literature, we have seen that the English language belongs to the Indo-European family and in this sense it has a distant relationship with Urdu, Hindi, and Persian etc.
Today we will discuss some of the modern history of the English language. In the 5th and 6th centuries AD, the British Isles were invaded by ‘Angle’ and ‘Saxon’ tribes from the north, pushing the Celtic-speaking natives into Scotland, Ireland and Wales, as like (the Aryans pushed the natives of India southward.)
In the 8th and 9th centuries, the invasions of Vikings and Norse tribes also began from the north, and thus the area of present-day England became the home of many different languages, and many old words got new meanings, for example, the meaning of dream until that time. It was meant to be ‘fun’ but the pirates of the north (Vikings) gave it the meaning of ‘dream’.
Similarly, the word skirt also came here with the northern invaders but its form changed to shirt. Later the two words came to be used in different meanings and are still being used today.
The period from 500 to 1100 is called the Old English period.
In 1066 the Duke of Normandy invaded England and conquered the Anglo-Saxon tribes there. Thus words from the Old French language began to be incorporated into the vernacular.
This period of English lasted from 1100 to 1500 and is called Middle English.
Many English words related to law and crime and punishment were coined during this period. In English literature, Chaucer’s poetry is considered as an important example of this language.
After the year 1500, the modern era of English begins when, thanks to the Renaissance, the ancient Greek sciences and arts were revived and Greek words also found their way into English.
This era begins with a great name like Shakespeare and this era lasts till 1800. The period after 1800 is called the modern period of English, in which the grammar of English has become simpler and it has included many words from the languages of the Asian and African settlers of English.
Due to the growing importance of America in world politics, economy and trade, American English has also created a special place.
The simplicity of spelling and the direct and frank manner of speaking are characteristic of American English.