Including Differently-abled Children

Including Differently-abled Children in Regulars Classroom

Including Differently-abled Children in Regulars Classroom

  • The concept of neighborhood school is pivotal for education especially in countries like Pakistan where resources are limited. As children with special needs are the largest group of the children out of school, therefore it becomes imperative to understand their needs/challenges and what kind of children with special needs. Simple interventions will improve the enrollment and retention of the children with special needs.

Learning Outcomes

  • Knowledge and understanding about the special/specific needs of children and possible strategies for including children with special needs.

Key Concept

  • Meanings of terms; impairment, disability and handicap.
  • Key characteristics of children with special needs. Inclusion approaches and meanings.


Case Studies/Group Discussion

  • All human rights obligations signed by the government of Pakistan and enshrined in the constitution of Islamic republic of Pakistan discourage discrimination on any ground. This is more imperative in case of all children especially street children. Children with disabilities, refugee children, ethnicity, language, minorities, etc. as the highest numbers of children out of school in the developing countries are considered children with disabilities, so this session will explain key terms and approaches to encourage the participation of children with special needs in the education of system. Similarly, much of the discrimination that children face may be of attitude and social structure that prohibit inclusion like language, poverty, etc. which should also be addressed.

Activity 1

  • Write the following questions on the board.
  • Do you know anyone who is ‘disabled’?
  • How are they ‘disabled’?
  • What does ‘disability’ mean?
  • After trainees have shared their ideas, explain that children have similarities as well as differences in their physical, emotional and cognitive responses.

Share the difference between impairment and disability:



  • Impairment is loss of ability to use parts of the body. It can be temporary or permanent, and can be because of birth, disease, malnutrition and accidents. It is a medical aspect.


  • A disability is any restriction or lack (resulting from an impairment) of ability to perform an activity in the manner or within the range considered normal for a human being.
  • Al children are unique, and their uniqueness may be visible in one or more of the following areas: vision, hearing, movement, communication, perceptual motor, social, emotional, intelligence, socio-economic deprived malnutrition, dropout and adaptive behaviors. Children with deviate from adaptive behavior. Children who deviate from normal responses in any of the above-mentioned areas are categorized as children with special needs. A child may have, either considering or accepting they child for care or if they are already in care:
      1. Learning Disabilities
      2. Nutrition Deficiencies
      • Hearing impairment
      1. Mental Retardation
      2. Multiple Handicaps
      3. Physical Handicapped

Behaviors/Emotionally Disturbed

Activity 2

Learning Difficulties

Learning Difficulties

  • Provide each participant with a sheet of paper.
  • Ask the trainees to listen carefully to asked question and write answer on provided sheet quickly as statement of question will not be repeated again.
      1. Write your family name in the lower left-hand corner of the paper and your other name in the upper right hand corner.
      2. Write your age on the middle of the bottom edge.
      3. Divide your age by half and write that in the upper left-hand corner.
      4. Draw eight circles across the middle of the page.
      5. Draw a triangle inside the middle of the second, fourth and seventh circles.
      6. Make a cross in the first and sixth circle and put your pen down.
  • Exchange papers with the person sitting next to you for making.
  • Read the instructions again but more slowly this timer. Ask participants to cut 5 marks for every wrong answer and give 5 marks for correct answer.
  • Write the score on the paper and give the paper back to the person.
  • Ask trainees about the experience.
  • Explain that this role play simulates what it is like for people with learning difficulties and mental retardation.
  • Now explain different kinds of disabilities as given in the table.

Child with Learning DisabilitySlow Learner ChildrenNutrition Deficient /mALNUTRITION cHILDRENChildren with Visual Impairment Children with Hearing Impairment Children with Behavioral Disabilities /DisturbancePhysically Handicap ChildrenChildren with Emotional Disturbance

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