- A conjunction is a part of speech that is used to connect words, phrases, clause or sentences, as such; but, and, or, nor, yet, for, since, unless, while etc.
- Conjunctions joining words:
1. Two and two make four.
2. Amman and Masher are sisters.
3. I bought bananas and apples.
2. Conjunctions joining clauses:
1. I went to school while my sister went to market.
2. My home is little but my heart is bigger.
3. She must weep, or she will die.
TYPES OF CONJUNCTIONS:
1. . Co-ordinating Conjunctions:
- The conjunctions that join two independent sentences or sentences of equal rank or importance are called co-ordinating conjunctions as such; and, but, for, or, nor, also, either … or, neither …nor
1) I ate food but Aleem drank milk.
2) Birds fly and fish swim.
3) Either he or his brother is responsible for this loss.
Co-ordinating conjunctions are of four types:
I. Cumulative or Copulative:
- These conjunctions merely add one statement to another as such;
1. Anam and Asif did masters in English.
2. Asia as well as Saliah passed the test.
3. The cow got up and just walked away.
- These conjunctions express opposition or Contrast between two statements.
1. He is slow, but he is sure.
2. I was annoyed, still I kept quiet.
3. He was all right, only he was fatigued.
III. Disjunctive or Alternative:
These conjunctions express choice between two statements, such as;
1. She must weep, or she will die.
2. Either he is mad, OR he feigns madness.
3. Walk swiftly; else you will not overtake him.
These conjunctions express inference, as such;
1. She worked hard, so she passed her exams.
2. Something must have fallen, for I heard a noise.
A subordinating conjunction join as a clause to another on with it depends for its full meaning. The chief subordinating conjunctions are: after, because, if, that, though, till, unless, as, when, where, although
1. As he was not at home, I talked to his mother.
2. She failed because she had not worked hard.
3. Unless you work hard, you can`t pass.
4. Though he is poor, he is generous.
5. You will pass if you work hard.
6. Since you say so, I must believe it.
7. Tell them that I will come.
8. He is taller than i.
9. She is wiser than her brother.
Subordinating conjunctions may be classified according to their meaning as such;
a) Time: before, till, since, after
1. I would die before I lied.
2. I returned home after he had gone.
3. Many things have happened since I saw you.
b) Cause or Reason: because, since, as
1. He is fearless because he is true.
2. He passed since he worked hard.
3. He may enter as he is my friend.
c) Purpose: so that, lest
1. He worked hard so that he may pass.
2. Walk fast lest you should be late.
d) Condition: if, unless
1. I would beat you if you told mother.
2. Unless you obey your parents, no one will call you obedient.
e) Concession: though, although
1. Though he is poor, he has a big heart.
2. Although he hurts me, yet I will be with him.
f) Comparison: than
1. He runs faster than his brother does.
2. She came earlier than her sister.
Some Conjunctions are used in Pairs:
1. Neither she nor her mother is present in the house.
2. Either he is a fool or a knave.
3. Both Aslam and Akram respect their teacher.
4. She does n`t care whether you eat or not.
5. He is not only a brother to me but also a friend.
6. No sooner did he leave the house than it started raining.
7. As you sow, so shall you reap.
Some Compound expressions are also used as Conjunctions:
1. He saved a lot of money so that his sons should lead a prosperous life.
2. Adnan as well as Aslam was present in the class.
3. He should be employed provided that he fulfills the basic qualifications.
4. He will be readmitted to school on condition that he submits a written apology.
5. She looks as if she were ill.