THE VERB & ITS TYPES
KINDS OF VERB
- There are two main types of the verbs: Transitive and Intransitive
I. Transitive verbs:
- Transitive verb is a verb that denotes as action which passes over from the doer or subject to an object.
1. Aslam playedfootball.
2. Arabia learnt her lesson.
3. Shasta writes a letter.
4. Osama did his homework.
5. Mira beats her brother.
II. Intransitive Verbs:
- Intransitive verb is a verb that denotes an action which doesn`t pass over from the doer or subject to an object.
1. The boy laughsloudly.
2. He ran a long distance.
3. He has come from his college.
4. She cries out loudly.
5. The baby sleepspeacefully.
- Note: Some verbs are used both transitively and intransitively. Some of them are; run, sing, leave, move, start, change, close, open, stop, do, set, live, wash, write
- Q. Pick out the verb in each sentence and state whether it is transitive or intransitive.
1. The sun shines bright.
2. I hear a noise.
3. Ali drives the car carefully.
4. You got angry with your sister.
5. Sarmad ate a lot of sweets.
6. Everyone tried very hard to win the race.
7. She knows the secret.
AUXILIARIES / HELPING VERBS
- The verbs ‘be’ (is, am, are, was, were), ‘have’ and ‘do’ are used with ordinary verbs to make tenses, passive forms, questions and negatives are called ‘Auxiliaries’ or ‘Auxiliary verbs (Auxiliary = helping)
Be (is, am, are, was, were)
- The auxiliary ‘be’ is used in the formation of continuous tenses, passive voice, in commands etc. as such;
1. In Continuous tenses:
1. I am writing a book.
2. She is playing cricket.
3. They were running after a dog.
4. He was eating food.
5. You are going to your college.
2. In Passive Voice:
1. I am beaten by a stranger.
2. She is scolded. You are taught.
3. She was asked to go.
4. They were punished.
5. He was led to a seat.
3. In Commands:
1. You are to do this.
2. You are to go now.
3. You are to go to market now.
Have (has, have, had)
1. The auxiliary ‘have’ is used in the formation of the perfect tenses; as,
1. He has worked.
2. He has been working.
2. ‘Have to’ is used with the infinitive to indicate obligation; as,
1. I have to be there by five o`clock.
2. He has to move the furniture himself.
3. The past form had to is used to express obligation in the past, as;
1. I had to be there by five o`clock.
2. He had to move the furniture himself.
4. In negative and questions, have to and had to are used with do, does, did; as,
1. They have to go –They don`t have to go. Do they have to go?
2. He has to go—He does n`t have to go. Does he have to go?
3. He had to go—–He didn`t have to go. Did he have to go?
Do (do, does, did)
The auxiliary ‘do’ is used
1) To form the negative and interrogative of the simple present and simple past tenses of ordinary verbs; as,
1. He does n`t work.
2. He didn`t work.
3. Does he work?
4. Did he work?
2) To avoid repetition of a previous ordinary verb; as,
1. Do you know him? Yes, I do.
2. Does she sing well? Yes, she does.
3. You met him, didn`t you?
4. He eats fish and so do you.
3) ‘Do’ is also used to emphasize the affirmative nature of a statement; as,
1. You do look pale.
2. I told him not to go, but he did go.
4) In the imperative, ‘do’ makes a request or invitation more persuasive; as,
1. Do be quiet.
- Oh, do come! It`s going to be such fun. In such cases ‘do’ is strongly stressed
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