THE ADJECTIVE AND ITS TYPES
- An adjective is a word that is used to describe, point out, and tell the number or quality of a noun. In other words, it modifies a noun or pronoun, as such;
1. Ansari is an intelligent girl. [the word ‘intelligent’ describing a noun]
2. I don`t like thatboy. [the word ‘that’ pointing out a noun]
3. He gave me fivemangoes. [the word ‘five’ telling the number of a noun]
4. There is little time for preparation. [ the word ‘little’ telling the quantity of the noun]
5. She is pretty girl. [ the word ‘pretty’ telling the quality of the noun]
6. He is a lazyboy. [ the word ‘lazy’ telling the quality of a noun]
7. I have her twopencils. [the word ‘two’ telling the number of a noun]
8. The team has had enough practice. [the word ‘enough’ telling the number of a noun]
9. They showed muchpractice. [the word ‘much’ telling the quantity of a noun]
10. He did not eat any bread. [the word ‘any’ telling the number of a noun]
11. Most Pakistanis like cricket. [the word ‘most’ telling the quantity of a noun]
12. This is a Pakistani cloth. [the word ‘Pakistani’ telling the proper adjective]
KINDS OF ADJECTIVES
- Following are the kinds of adjectives:
(1)Adjective of Quality:
- It shows the kind or quality of a person or thing. Adjectives of quality answer the question: of what kind? As such;
1. Lahore is a large city.
2. She is an honest lady.
3. The foolish old crow flew here and there.
4. He is loyal to his country.
(2)Adjective of Quantity:
- Adjective of quantity show how much of a thing meant. It answers the question: How much? As such;
1. She ate some food.
2. He has little intelligence.
3. Take great care of your things.
4. The whole nation needs quality of things.
(3)Adjective of Number (or Numeral)
- It shows the number of persons or things. It also shows the order of persons or things. It answers the question: How many? As such;
1. I have fivehundred rupees.
2. All men must die.
3. Few cats like cold water.
4. Monday is the first day of the week.
5. There are severalmistakes in your essay.
Adjective of Quantity (or Numeral adjectives) are of three kinds:
I. Definite Numeral Adjectives:
These adjectives denote the exact number of persons or things;
One, two, three, four [these are called cardinals, showing number]
First, second, third, fourth [these are called ordinals, showing number]
II. Indefinite Numeral Adjectives:
These adjectives don`t show the exact number of persons or things;
All, few, many, some, any, certain, several
III. Distributive Numeral Adjectives:
These adjectives refer to each one of a number of things or persons;
Each, every, either, neither
- These adjectives are used to point out persons or things. They answer the question: which? As such;
1. This boy is more intelligent than that.
2. These mangoes are sweet.
3. Those rascals must be punished.
4. I hate suchthings.
- The adjectives that are used to ask questions are called interrogative adjectives. They include: what, which, whose, as such;
1. What thing should we take with us?
2. Which way should I take to reach school?
3. Whose book is this?
- Adjectives formed from proper nouns are called proper adjectives, as such;
Proper Nouns Proper Adjectives
- These adjectives show possession, as such;
1. She loves her cat.
2. They don`t use their brain.
3. I can` t gives you my book.
- These adjectives are used to show emphasis, as such;
1. I saw him with my own eyes.
2. This is the very thing I need.
3. Mind your own business.
4. This is the very person who sells car.
- What is sometimes used as an exclamatory adjective in exclamatory sentences, as such;
1. What rubbish!
2. What folly!
3. What an ideal!
4. What a blessing!
COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES
- Adjectives change in form to show comparison. These forms are called Degrees of Comparison. They are of three kinds: Positive degree, Comparative degree, Superlative degree
- It just shows the quality of some noun, as such;
1. Akram is an intelligent boy.
2. Sana is busy in her work.
3. I am tired.
- It gives the comparison between two nouns, as such;
1. Akram is more intelligent than Aslam.
2. Ayesha is busier than Sana.
3. Sameer is faster than Aslam.
These are some comparative which are followed by toinstead of that.
1. She is senior to me.
2. I am junior to her.
3. This pen is superior to that.
4. This painting is inferior to that.
- It shows the highest degree of quality. Here, it gives comparison between more than two nouns. (Or sets of things) as such;
1. Akram is the most intelligent boy in the class.
2. Shahid is the busiest man in the city.
3. Allama Iqbal is the greatest poet in the Sub-Continent.
PARTICIPLES USED AS ADJECTIVES
- Present participle (-ing form of verb) and past participle (third form of verb) are also used as adjectives, as such;
1. I was amused by the way she acted in the play. [amused: past participle]
2. Do you find this type of humor amusing? [amusing: present participle]
3. The movie was really interesting!
4. I thought it was a good lecture, but wasn`t very interested in the topic.
5. Our town is so boring! There is nothing to do here.
6. Are you bored with that game already?
7. Have you heard her laugh? It`s so annoying.
8. I`m really annoyed with one of my co-workers.
9. The city was damaged during the storm.
10. The information was quite damaging to his reputation.
11. This treatment is really great. It makes me feel so relaxed.
12. Didn`t like that movie. I thought it was too depressing.
ORDER OF ADJECTIVES
- Where a number of adjectives are used together, the order depends on the function of the adjective. The usual order is:
Value / opinion
Age / opinion
1. We saw a huge gray whale in the sea.
2. Babar uses the medium blue rubber ball for basketball practice.
3. Maureen brought a few triangular dark chocolate bars to the birthday party.
4. The pyramids of Egypt are made out of enormous rectangular rock boulders.
5. Shahid can eat five thin-crust square pizza slices.
THE CORRECT USE OF SOME ADJECTIVES
- Some is used to express quantity or degree in affirmative sentences and any in negative or interrogative sentences, as such;
1. You have bought some apples.
2. You have not bought any apples.
3. Have you bought any apples?
- Each is used in speaking of two or more things when the number is limited and definite. Every is used only in speaking or more than two when the number is indefinite, as such;
1. I stayed in Narran for three days, and it rained each day.
2. Each of the two sisters has pens.
3. This magazine is published every year.
Little, a little, the little
- Little means hardly any and, therefore, has a negative meaning. A little means some, though not much. It has positive meaning. The little means not much, but all that is, as such;
1. Maureen has little chance of recovery.[hardly any]
2. Her mother has a little chance of recovery.
3. The doctors must avail themselves of the little chance of recovery that he has.
Few, a few, the few
- Few mean hardly any. It has a negative meaning. A few means some. It has a positive meaning. The few means not many, but all these are, as such;
1. I am unlucky that I have few friends. [i.e. hardly any]
2. She is lucky as she has a few friends.
3. The few friends she has are very influential.