LESSON NO. THE NOUN AND ITS KINDS Subject English Grade 10th
A noun is a word that is used as the name of a person, animal, place, idea or thing, as such;
1. Fraz is a great poet.
2. I live in Bahawalpur.
3. The cow is a useful animal.
4. Patience is a good quality.
5. Love is a unique thing.
6. Muhammad Ali Jinnah was a great leader.
7. The Indus is the longest river in Pakistan.
8. Please don`t make a noise.
9. Naela is suffering from fever.
10. Children drink milk.
11. Always speak truth.
12. Silence is a virtue.
(2) Common Noun:
- A common noun is a name given in common to every person, thing or place of the same class or kind, as such;
1. I saw a girl on the road.
2. She likes the children.
3. I bought a book.
- A collective noun is the name of a number (for collection) of person, animal or things taken together and spoken of as one whole, as such; crowd, mob, team, family, police, army, fleet, nation, jury, committee, etc.
(4) Abstract Noun:
- It is usually the name of a quality, action or state. The names of the Arts and Sciences are also considered Abstract nouns. Abstract nouns are formed from adjectives, verbs and common nouns, as such;
Quality: kindness, goodness, darkness, brightness, honesty, wisdom, bravery
Action: laughter, theft, movement, judgment
State: childhood, boyhood, youth, sleep, death
(5) Countable Nouns:
- Countable nouns (or countable) are the names of things that we can count e.g. book, pen, table, doctor, sister. Countable have plural forms. (Book: books)
(6) Uncountable Nouns:
(7) Material Nouns:
- Read the following sentences:
1. This ring is made of gold.
2. This chair is made of wood.
3. Please give me a glass of water.
- In the above sentences, gold, wood and water are material nouns because they refer to some matter or substance, so a material noun denotes the matter or substance of which the things are made. Here we should note that gold is a material noun but ‘ring;’ is a common noun; wood is a material noun but ‘chair’ is a common noun; water is a material noun but ‘glass’ is a common noun. But if we say:
- Glass is transparent, then ‘glass’ would be a material noun, because here it does n`t denote the container, But denotes the matter or substance.
- The sheep is a common noun, but mutton (the flesh of sheep, goat) is a material noun. The tree is a common noun but wood is material noun.
- Note: no article is usually used before a material noun, but when it is specified it takes the definite article ‘The’.
1. Coal is black. The coal of India is of good quality.
2. He drinks water. The water of the Gang is sacred.
(8) Concrete Nouns:
The noun that we can experiences with our senses (five senses: smell, taste, touch, see & hearing) is known as concrete noun. For example; candy, tail, giraffe, sand, women, belt, zoo and mangoes etc.
1. Apartment: I booked an apartment in the royal palace hotel.
2. Salt: She cooked for the first time in her life, that`s why forget to add salt.
3. Water: I asked the waiter to bring some water to drink>
4. Shoes: I was waiting for these leather shoes to display on outlet.
5. Theater: The Theater was surrounded by people when they saw a celebrity there.
6. Ginger: I used to eat ginger in salad/
7. Fan: Our fan is made up of metal.
8. Tissue paper: Can you please give me a tissue paper to wipe my nose
9. Popcorn: We bought popcorn to eat while sitting in cinema.
10. Butter: My little brother brings butter from the grocery.
An abstract noun is the name of some feeling, quality, action or state. An abstract noun can only be felt or thought of. It can`t be seen or touched because an abstract noun has no form, shape, size, weight or colour.
Some of the important abstract nouns are arranged below under four heads;
The names of Arts and Sciences (e.g. Grammar, Music, Physics, Chemistry, etc.) are also Abstract Noun.
Note: thus we see that five kinds of nouns (proper, common, collective, material and concrete previously described relate to objects of sense that can be seen or touched. But an abstract noun refers to quality, feeling, state or action that can`t seen or touched, it only can be felt.
We know that a stone is hard. We also know that iron is hard. We also know that brick is hard. We can, therefore, speak of hardness apart from stone or iron or brick or any other object having the same quality.
Abstract Nouns are formed:
a) From Adjectives; Kindness from kind; honesty from honest.
b) From Verbs: arrival from arrive; growth from grow
c) From Common Nouns: childhood from child; slavery from salve.