CONSTRUCTION OF SENTENCES AND TYPES OF SENTENCES
- There are five different kinds of sentences;
- Note: in English, each type of sentences and the first line in case of a poem, start with a capital letter. It is important to remember that the Assertive, Imperative and Optative sentences end up with a full stop (.) whereas the interrogative sentences with a note of interrogation (?) and the exclamatory sentences with a note of exclamatory (!). These five types of sentences are again divided into two types:
- Note: However, in Transformation of sentences we can use ‘not’ with the opposite word or the phrase’ it is not that’ to keep the meaning unchanged e.g. Affirmative—Ali is a good boy. Negative—Ali is not a bad boy. Affirmative —He is a Pakistani. Negative—It is not that he is not a Pakistani.
- In English, Assertive, Interrogative, Imperative, Optative and Exclamatory sentences have five types of sentence pattern:
(1) ASSERTIVE SENTENCE PATTERN
- About 80 percent of sentences in English are of Assertive pattern. The rules of arrangement of such sentences are (S + V + O / Comp. Adverbial):
(2) IMPERATIVE SENTENCE PATTERN
- In imperative sentences, the subject ‘you’ is omitted. Hence the verb comes first and the remaining part is the same as the assertive sentences.
- The rules of arrangement of such sentences are (V + O / Comp. / Adverbials)
You smoke and your family suffers. [Assertive, not imperative]
You must do your duty. [Assertive, not imperative]
- Note: Why is the subject omitted in the imperative? As the subject is always ‘you’, and nothing else, it is omitted in the imperative sentence. However, the adverb ‘please’ or ‘kindly’ comes first in the imperative order to denote a polite request, such as;
i. Please sit down.
ii. Kindly give me a glass of water.
(3) INTERROGATIVE SENTENCE PATTERN
- Three rules of forming interrogative sentences:
(i) The verb Be and its forms—is, am, are, was, were; Have and its forms –has, have, had; shall, should; will, would; can, could; may, might; etc. are placed before the subject in an interrogative sentence.(V + S +O / Comp. /Adverbials)
(ii) The verb Do (do—does—did) is placed before the subject in absence of the above-listed verbs (Do + S + V + O/Comp./Adverbials)
1. Do you play football every day?
2. Does Afshan do her homework every day?
3. Did you write a letter to your brother?
(iii) Wh-word comes first. If necessary, in both the above-mentioned types of interrogative sentences (Wh—Word + Interrogative Pattern) as such;
1. Who are you?
2. Whose book is this?
3. Whom do you want?
4. Which is your pen?
5. What are you doing?
6. When do you eat?
7. Where does he live (in)?
8. Why do you come here?
9. How does he write?
10. How many sisters have you?
11. How much milk do you want?
Note: The helping verb ‘do’ is not required where ‘who’ poses itself as the subject, as; who knows it? But ‘do’ is required to make a negative form as; who does not know it?
(4) OPTATIVE SENTENCE PATTERN
- An Optative sentence denotes wish or prayer. The rules of forming such an Optative sentence are: (May + Assertive =Optative)
(1) May you live long. May God bless you. [blessing]
(2) May the sky break down upon you. [cursing]
- Sometimes, ‘may’ is omitted: Long lives the king. (= may the king live long)
(5) EXCLAMATORY SENTENCE PATTERN
- An Exclamatory sentence is used to express sudden emotion of joy, sorrow, wonder, etc. such sentences are formed in two ways:
(i) By using ‘Alas! Hurrah! Ah!’ : (Alas/Hurrah + Assertive = Exclamatory)
1. Alas! The man is dead.
2. Hurrah! We have won the match.
3. Hush! The man is asleep.
4. Fie! You are a liar.
5. Hello! You are Kamal, I see!
(ii) By using What, How, etc. : (What/How + S + V):
1. What a nice bird it is!
2. What a wonderful land it is!
3. How happy you are!
4. How cold it is today!
- Note: The verb is placed before the subject in interrogative sentences with ‘what’ or ‘how’. But the verb is placed after the subject in exclamatory sentence with ‘what’ or ‘how’.