Subject English

Grade 10th

  • An article is a word that modifies or describes the noun. It is used before the noun to show whether it refers to something specific or not.
  • Definite: to be clear, exact or obvious about something. It is called definite because it is used in relation to a particular thing or person. “The” is the definite article in English, which is used to refer to particular noun.
  • The definite article ‘the’ is used:

Rule #1: To indicate a particular person(s) or thing(s):

Look at the boy/boys. He is/they are peculiarly dressed. I want ‘The Golden Book of Treasures’. The book is out-of-print.

Rule #2: Before a noun which has become definite by being mentioned a second time: It is also called ’Familiar The’

There is a tree in the garden. The tree is an oak.

Rule #3: Before a noun made definite by the addition of a phrase or clause:

The girl with the white skirt is beautiful.

The boy who came here is my friend.

The pen which I bought from the market is not so good.

Rule #4: Before a singular noun meant to represent a whole class:

The cow is a useful animal.

The dog is a faithful animal.

The rose is the sweetest of all flowers.

Note: two nouns ‘man’ and ‘woman’ used to denote the whole class never has any article as; (i) Man is mortal (ii) Woman is man`s mate.

Rule #5: Before an uncountable noun to particularize it:

The gold of the ring is very bright.

The political wisdom of Nelson Mandela made him familiar as a popular leader in South Africa.

Rule #6: Before a name of a thing which is only one in nature:

Look at the moon.

The sun shines in the sky.

The earth moves round the sun.

Rule #7: Before a noun denoting nation or race:

The English are industrious.

The Pakistani is intelligent but idle.

Note: Such a noun without ‘the’ indicates the language of the people: English (= English language) is an international language. Urdu (=Urdu language) is a rich language.

Rule #8: Before a name of Road, but not before a name of Street or Avenue:

The bus is running on the Circular Road. The book is bought from College Street.

This bat is available in a shop on Central Avenue. (Not the before a road with a proper noun, e.g. Allama Iqbal Road, Server Shied Road)

Rule #9:  Before some nouns to indicate profession:

He joined the bar.

He joined the church.

Rule#10: Before the name of a musical instrument when one plays it. Otherwise not:

He plays the flute. (But, he has a flute)

Note: ‘The’ is not applicable when ‘play on’ is a group verb, as; he plays on flute. (Or) he plays on tabla.

Rule #11:  Before ordinal numbers:

Who is the first/the second boy?

The 23rdJanuary is a red-letter day (But, January 23).

Rule #12:  As a general rule a proper noun should not have any article before it. But some proper nouns take ‘the’ before them as exception:

Before the names of holy books, newspapers, ships, trains, aero planes, space-craft, famous buildings, rivers, seas, oceans, gulfs, mountain ranges, ground of islands, deserts and directions:

Note: If a book is called after its author, the article is not used. ‘The’ isn`t placed before the names of single mountains, single islands. Not before the names of capes, nor before the names of lakes.

Rule#13:Before the names of a province having a descriptive geographical meaning as such; The Punjab, The Baluchistan, etc.

Rule #14: Before the names of countries which are collectively formed:

The U.S.A. (the United states of America) the U.K. (the united Kingdom) , but not for India, Pakistan, England, America, etc.

Rule #15: Before the plural names of families:

The Bosses are familiar with the browns.

Rule #16: Before proper nouns for comparison to denote a type:

Scot is the Bankim of England.

Ahga Hassan Kashmiri is the Shakespeare of Urdu drama in literary qualities.

Faisal Abad is Manchester of Pakistan as an industrial belt.

Rule #17: Before a proper noun when it is qualified by an Adjective or Adjectival phrases or clauses:

The great Caesar

The immortal poet Allama Iqbal

I am the person who never stood second in the examination.

Rule #18:Before some common nouns and adjectives to express an abstract sense:

The entire mother (= motherly feelings) rose in her.

Check the beast (=beastly passion) in you.

Don`t play the fool. (= foolishness)

Don`t keep him in the dark. (= darkness)

He allowed the father (= his fatherly feelings) to be overruled by the judge.

(= his sense of duty as a judge) and declared his own son to be guilty.

Rule #19:  Before adjectives to denote a particular part of a thing:

I like the yellow of an egg. (The yellow)

He entered the thick. (= the thick part) of the forest.

Rule #20: Before a common noun as a suitable for the Possessive Adjective:

He caught me by the arm. (The = my)

He struck you on the head. (The = your)

He pulled the cat by the tail. (The = its)

Rule #21: Before an Adjective to represent a whole class of persons:

The rich (= rich men) are not always happy.

The poor (= poor men) aren`t always dishonest.

The virtuous (= virtuous people) are happy.

Note: The rich aren`t always happy. = rich men aren`t always happy.

The rich man (= a particular rich man) isn`t always happy.

But not, the rich men aren`t always happy;

[The rich men’ don`t denote a whole class, but a particular group of persons]

Rule #22:Before the Adjectives in Superlative degree and the words in the superlative sense:

He is the best boy in the class.

She is the most beautiful girl.

Even the darkest cloud has a silver lining.

 The chief minister / the prime minster have arrived here.

He is the singer of the day.

He is the man of the match.

Rule #23: Before Comparatives as Adverbs:

The sooner, the better

The more, the merrier.

The more we have, the more we want.






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