PARTS OF SPEECH (A BRIEF OVERVIEW)
- What is meant by ‘Parts of Speech’?
- Words are divided into different kinds according to their use of according to the work they do in a sentence.
- Parts of speech are the classification of words categorized by their roles and functions within the structure of the language.
TYPES AND PARTS OF SPEECH
- The parts of speech are eight in number:
(i) A noun is a word used for naming some place, person or things.
(ii) A noun is a word used as the name of person, place, thing, fact, idea or quality of a person.
Examples: Ahmad, police, girls, table, tea, school, horse, Bahawalpur, nation, death, life, class, happiness, honest, hurrah! Oh! Bravo, wonderful, hello, etc.
(a) Akbar was a king.
(b) Multan is an old city of Pakistan.
(c) Ali is a nice boy.
(d) His honesty won him fame.
(e) I like tea.
(f) My parents like to go to Makah and Medina.
(g) Henna is a kind lady.
(h) He lives in Lahore.
DIFFERENT TYPES OF NOUN
1. Proper noun
2. Common noun
3. Abstract noun
4. Concrete noun
5. Countable noun
6. Non-countable noun
7. Collective noun
8. Compound noun
9. Material noun
- A word used instead of a noun is called a Pronoun.
- A pronoun is a word that is used in place of a noun.
- A pronoun is a word that replaces a noun. So the repetition of the same noun sounds silly. Hence a pronoun is used instead of a noun;
- Use of the same noun; as, Ali is a student. Ali is going to school. Ali is an intelligent boy.
- Use of Pronoun; as, Ali is a student. He is going to school. He is an intelligent boy.
I am a student.
You are a doctor.
She is a girl.
They are players
KINDS OF PRONOUNS
- There are ten different kinds of pronouns;
1. Personal Pronouns
2. Impersonal Pronouns
3. Possessive Pronouns
4. Relative & Emphatic Pronouns
5. Demonstrative Pronouns
6. Indefinite Pronouns
7. Distributive Pronouns
8. Reciprocal Pronouns
9. Interrogative Pronouns
10. Relative Pronouns
PERSONAL PRONOUNS ARE DIVIDED INTO THREE PERSONS:
1. First Person: I, we, me, us, my, mine, our, ours
2. Second Person: you, your, yours
3. Third Person: he, she, it, they, him, her, them, his, her, hers, their, theirs, its
- An Adjective is a word used to qualify a noun or a pronoun.
- An Adjective is a word which describes a person or a thing.
- An Adjective is a word used to add something to the meaning of a noun.
- Good, black, many, few, big, brave, lazy, tall, dull, honest,
Haifa is a nice boy.
Shiraz is a hard-working.
Haman is a lazy boy.
Timor is a sensible boy.
TYPES OF ADJECTIVES
1. Proper Adjective
2. Adjective of quality
3. Adjective of quantity
4. Numeral Adjectives
5. Demonstrative Adjectives
6. Distributive Adjectives
7. Interrogative Adjectives
8. Possessive Adjectives
(4) Verb :
- A verb is a word used for saying or asserting something about some person or thing.
- A verb is a word that is used to express an action or state
- A word which describes an action or state of the subject is called verb (denotes doing, being, and having)
1. Doing Verb! It also known as an action verb.(Physically involvement) e.g. play, eat, read, study, jump, wash, run, stands up, sit down, right turn, left turn, e.t.
2. Being Verb! It is also known as existence verb. E.g. is, am, are, was, were etc.
(i) I am a teacher.
(ii) They are good boys.
(iii) She is a nice girl.
(iv) She is my class fellows.
3. Having Verb! It is also known as possessive verb, e.g. has, have, had, having, etc.
- Examples: (a) I eat my meal regularly.
(b) Children play in the park.
(c) Ahmad is my friend.
(d) The dog was black.
€ I have a red pen.
(f) He has a big house.
KINDS OF VERB
- Verbs are classified in four different ways:
- An Adverb is a word that is used to add something to the meaning of a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.
- An Adverb is a word that modifies a verb, an adjective and other adverb.
i. Fatima writes beautifully.
ii. Please go away.
iii. Hopefully, I will pass in exams.
iv. He runs too fast.
v. You are veryinteresting person.
vi. He is verystrong.
vii. Hassan did his work quickly.
viii. She is very intelligent
ix. He pronounced the word quite correctly.
USES OF ADVERBS
Adverb can be used in three ways:
1. Attributive Adverb;
2. Predicative Adverb;
3. Introductory Adverb;
FORMATION OF ADVERB
KINDS OF ADVERB
Adverbs are divided into three main categories:
(1) Simple Adverbs:
Simple Adverbs are of eight kinds, as;
(iv) Reason or Purpose
(v) Affirmation and Negation
(vi) Condition & Contrast
(2) Relative Adverb & Conjunctive Adverb
(3) Interrogative Adverbs
- A proposition is a word used with a noun or a pronoun to show how the person or things denoted by the noun or pronoun stands in relation to something else.
- A preposition is a word that is used to show the relation between a noun or a pronoun with another noun or pronoun.
(i) There is a boy in the room.
(ii) A girl is fond of music.
(iii) Ali is with his friends.
(iv) The cat is under a table.
(v) There is a cow in the field.
(vi) The cat jumped off the chair.
(vii) He is fond of tea.
(viii) He played instead of working.
KINDS OF PREPOSITION
There are five types of preposition;
1. Preposition of time.
2. Preposition of place.
3. Preposition of direction.
4. Preposition of manner.
5. Preposition of compound.
Conjunction joins words or group of words in a sentence.
A conjunction is a word that is used to join words or sentences.
A conjunction is a word used for joining:
(1) One word to another word.
(2) One word to a clause
(3) One sentence to another sentence(i.e. one clause to another clause)
Used words; and, because, yet, therefore, moreover, since, or, so, until, but, etc.
1. I am hungry but I don`t have any food.
2. He likes cat and dogs.
3. The telephone rang while I was cooking food.
4. She likes dogs but her family does n`t like dogs.
5. Awais and Anum are class fellows.
6. I went to school but my mother went to hospital.
Note: conjunction also comes at the beginning of sentence, as; because I woke up late today, I went to office without eating breakfast.
TYPES OF CONJUNCTION
- There are three types of conjunction;
1. Coordination conjunction:
- The conjunction that connects two word/two independent phrases or clauses is known as coordinating conjunction. The two connected clauses or phrases are of equal importance.
One thought + coordinating conjunction + second thought
Two thoughts are about the same thing.
Coordinating conjunctions words: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, Subordinating conjunction
An interjection is a short word or phrase that shows sudden feeling or emotion.
An interjection is a word that is used to express some sudden feelings.
Interjections are frequently followed by an exclamation mark (!) which itself is used to express emotion.
Go here > Go there!
Hurrah! I have won a prize.
Alas! She is dead.
TYPES OF INTERJECTION
(i) Interjection for attention.
(ii) Interjection for hesitation.
(iii) Interjection for happiness.
(iv) Interjection for sorrow.
(v) Interjection for agreement.
(vi) Interjection for affirmative response.
(vii) Interjection for surprise.