Lesson Plan of Clauses


Lesson of Sentences and Its Clauses/ Joining /Splitting

Subject English

Grade 9th

  • [Special stress on the use of Clauses: the place (where) / the time (when); When/ While/After + Future Clauses; though / although + Clause; in order to (purpose); 1st conditional (if + Present Tense) + (will + Verb); 2nd conditional (if + Past Tense) + (would / could /might + verb) etc.]
  • Before learning about Clauses, let us study the kinds of sentences. According to structures there are three kinds of sentences, as;
  1. Simple Sentences
  2. Compound Sentence
  3. Complex Sentence

(A)   Simple Sentence

  • It contains only one subject and one finite verb or one predicate, as;
  • Birds chirp
  • We write letter
  • He found his meal ready.
  • He goes to school every day.
  • Note: A simple sentence may also have one or more non-finite verb/ verbs e.g. he goes to school to read and write. Going home, he found his meal ready.

Subject & Predicate:

  • Subject: A thing or place that is being discussed is called subject.
  • Predicate: The thing stated about subject is called predicate.
  • Note: Subject and predicate may consist of only one word or more than one word, as;


     (a)  Come.         (Sub. Omitted)

(d) The boy reads a book.


      (b)  Come here. (Sub. Omitted)

(e)  The girl plucks a flower.

(c) Come to the writing board. (Sub. Omitted)

(f) I shall not go to school.


Subject Word and Enlargement of the Subject:
  • When the subject comprises more than one word, there is a word more important than others. It is called Subject or Subject word. Other words are called enlargement of the subject, as; the word “birds” in the sentence “The birds of my brother” is most important. It is Subject word or Subject but the rest of words are: enlargement of the subject”
  • Note: In order to trace the Subject of a sentence “who or what” is placed before the verb and the answer is traced. That answer is the subject, as;
  1. Sentence: That young boy has attempted the paper.
  2. Question: Who has attempted the paper?
  3. Answer: That young boy has attempted the paper. So in this sentence the ‘boy’ is the subject word and ‘that young’ is the enlargement of the subject.

Finite Verb

  • The most important word in the predicate of a sentence is its verb which is singular or plural according to the subject. This is the essence of the sentence. So, a sentence can`t be framed without a verb.

Object Word and Enlargement of the Subject:

  • This verb is either a Transitive or Intransitive, as;
  1.  I write a letter.
  2. We read books.
  • In these two sentences the action of ‘write’ is done by letter, and the action of read is done by books, so here in this sentence the letter and books are object of verb.
  • In other condition in Intransitive verb, there are no needs of Object, as Run, Sleep, so this verb is completed with its subject.
  • If there in sentence have more than one object, as I write very fine letters. So, there is one word (object) is necessary and that is ‘letter ‘other are unnecessary, so such words are called ‘Enlargement of Object’.

Compound Sentence:

  • It contains two or more independent clauses or coordinating clauses joined by coordinating conjunctions like and, or, as well as, either… or, neither …nor, as;
  1. One Clause: I am happy.
  2. The other clause: you are sad
  • Compound sentence: I am happy but you are sad. Or I am happy however you are sad or I am happy whereas you are sad or I am happy while you are sad.
  • These two clauses joined with the conjunction “but”, “however”, “whereas”, and “while”.

Complex Sentence: 

  • Complex Sentence: It contains one principal clause and one or more subordinate clause or clauses.
  • Note: A complex sentence may also have subordinate clauses joined with conjunction-and, or, but, as well as, etc. as;
  1. I left the room when my sister came and began to eat a ripe banana.
  2. I know that he is poor but honest.

Difference between Clauses and Phrases:

  • A phrase:  is a group of words which does n`t contains a finiteverb. It does n`t have its own subject and predicate. It gives some sense but does n`t complete the sense, as;

On the table

In the corner

To the west

On my promotion

About her failure

On my success

On the roof

In the room

  • A phrase can be turned into a meaningful sentence as;
  • The book is lying on the table.
  • He stood in the corner.
  • We ran to the west.
  • She was happy on my promotion.
  • I am grieved about her failure.
  • I was happy on his success.
  • The ball is on the roof.
  • The girls are in the room.


  • A clause is a group of words that contains its own subject and predicate, as;
  1. If you work hard,      you will success.

                Clause,                   Clause

  1. If I were you,           I would not do it.
  • (A)         Phrase: I gave him a gold chain.
  • (A)        Clause: I gave him a chain, which was made of gold.
  • (B)        Phrase: The boy with blue eyes is my cousin.
  • (B)       Clause: There came my cousin, who had blue eyes.
  • (C)       Phrase: Mercury gave woodcutter a gold axe.
  • (C)      Clause: Mercury gave woodcutter an axe which was made of gold.


  • Clauses are of three kinds:
  1. Principal Clause.
  2. Subordinate Clause
  3. Coordinate Clause.
  • Kinds of Subordinate Clauses:
  • Subordinate Clauses are of three kinds, as;
  1. Adjective clause; does the work of an adjective.
  2. Adverbial Clause; does the work of an adverb.
  3. Noun Clause; does the work of noun.



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