Students’ Learning Outcomes
· Describe how bones and muscles work together to produce movement.
Information for Teachers
· Muscles are special parts of our body that can contract and relax
· When muscles contract they become shorter and when muscles relax they become longer.
· When muscles (attached with our bones) contract, they pull bones and movements occur.
· Different bones join together through joints.
· Muscles must work together in coordinated groups.
· Muscles groups produce movements in opposite direction.
· A muscles contracts and shortens-it exerts a force
· Counterpart relaxes.
· Which muscles work together to bend and extend to your leg?
· There are three types of muscles:
1. Skeletal muscles are voluntary muscles, meaning you have to consciously move them.
2. Cardiac muscles and smooth are involuntary muscles, meaning you don’t have to think about using them.
Material / Resources
Charts/pictures of elbow joint movements, textbook
Worm up Activity
· Recall students’ previous knowledge about bones and muscles.
· Ask the students about the different movements in their bodies.
· Ask the students to stand up and think about which bones and muscles were used in this movement.
· Ask the students to touch toes, jump, run, touch their ears and clap hands. Each time ask them to identify the muscles and bones, responsible of the movement.
· Explain that all the body movements are due to the movements of bones.
· Ask the students to feel the bones in their arms and count how many bones make full arm of human body?
· Explain by making a simple drawing on board, that there are three main bones in arm; one in the upper arm and two in the lower arm.
· Ask the students to feel their own arms and see if they can feel two bones in their lower arms.
· Ask the students to stand up, and then sit down, and then stand up again. Ask them to wave hands to say “Khuda Hafiz” let them sit down.
· Ask: if bones couldn’t bend, how could we move? (Accept all answer)
· Ask the students to locate that area where two bones join each other (i.e. joints). Point out that the three bones in the arm meet at the elbow joint.
· Show to the students the hinge in the classroom door and window. Ask them to explain its movements. Ask what would have happened if there was no hinge.
· Inform the students that the elbow joint move like a hinge.
· Ask few students to “walk” with stiff-legs and stiff-arms around the classroom trying not to bend at any joint. Now ask them what would happen if we don’t have joints.
· Ask them to do some tasks without bending the arm at the joint; like writing on the board, drinking water, picking up their bags etc. then ask them how did they feel?
· Ask the students to bend their lower arms up and feel the front side of the upper arm.
· Explain that muscles contract for bending lower arm and so movement occurs.
· Ask the students how the upper arm muscles pull the bones of lower arm.
(Expected response: muscles contract)
· Ask them to bend down (straighten) their lower arms. Ask: what happens when you bend down your lower arm? What happens to the muscles?
(Expected response: Muscles stretch).
· Inform the students that muscles work in pairs. The muscles on the front side of the upper arm pull the lower arm bones so the lower arm is bent up. The other muscles are present beneath the upper arm. When they contract, they pull back the lower arm bones so the lower arm is straightened.
· Ask the students to see the photograph of the muscles working at elbow joint from the book.
Sum up / Conclusion
· Bones and muscles work together and are responsible for different movements in our body.
· Tell the students that in next lesson they will learn the common disorders of various parts of body.
· To assess the understanding of the students ask following type of questions.
1. Identify the contracted and the relaxed muscles in a diagram of elbow joint movements (show any picture of elbow joint movement)
2. Explain how muscles produce movements at the knee joint.
3. Describe the movements of your daily life in which muscles and bones work.
· As the students to observe the movement of their own arms at home or do this practice with their sister or brother
· Ask them to write their observations in notebooks.