Characteristics of Monocot and Dicot Plants

       Students’ Learning Outcomes

·          Compare the structure of a monocot and dicot seed.
·          Compare the structure of a monocot and a dicot leaf  in           terms of its shape and venation.
·           Differentiate between the structure of monocot and dicot flowers in terms of number of 
                         floral leaves.

                           Information for Teach

The seed of a monocot plant, called a monocot seed, has one cotyledon.
The seed of dicot plant, called a dicot seed, has two cotyledons.
 The arrangement of veins in a leaf is called venation. Leaf veins are parallel in monocot plant leaves and form network in dicot plant leaves.
·         In flowers of monocot plant sepals and petals are present in multiple of three i. e. a set of 3, 6 or 9 etc.
Monocot & Dicot
·         In dicot plant, flowers, sepals and petals are present in multiple of four or five i. e. a set of 4, 8 or 12 etc. or a set of 5, 10 and 15 etc.

                                             Material / Resources

Flowers or pictures of monocot and dicot, seeds of grass, rose and maize and textbook

    Worm up Activity

  • Review the students understanding about the concept of classification. Recall the classification of plants into flowering and non-flowering plants.
  • Inform students that all the flowering plants and some non-flowering plants produce seeds during their life cycle. There is a large variety among the seed plants and scientists classify them into two groups known as monocot and dicot plants.
  • Ask the students what the terms “mono” and “di” mean
  • After students’ response inform the today’s topic.

     Activity 1

  • Arrange the students in appropriate number of groups.
  • Bring seeds of different plants like corn, beans, and peanuts etc. and give to each group.
  • Ask them to observe the external structure of seeds carefully.
  • Remove the upper cover of a seed gently and show its internal structure to students.
  • Ask the students to perform this activity and show the internal structures of seed one by one.
  • Demonstrate the internal structure of seed and explain the following points:
          —-Cotyledons are found in all seeds, some plants produce seeds with one cotyledon, such
                 plants are called monocot plants.
        —–Some plants produce seeds with two cotyledons. Such plants are called dicot plants.
        —-A seed coat is present on the seeds of both groups of plants.
      —–All flowering trees, bushes, vegetables and garden plants (not corn) are dicot plants while
             all grasses and grass-like plants are monocots.
  • Inform the students that they will learn the detailed structure of seed in next unit.

   Activity 2

  • Bring the leaves of monocot and dicot plants in class. Distribute the leaves to students’ groups and ask them to observe the leaf shapes and venation.
  • Draw the venation patterns of monocot and dicot leaves on board and ask students to copy.
  • Get the following table filled with the help of students.
Leaf shape
Leaf Venation

      Activity 3

  • Bring different flowers to the class.
  • Make groups and distribute the flowers in different groups.
  • Demonstrate how they will observe the internal and external structure of flower and ask them to observe carefully.
  • Tell the students that they have seen the differences in the seeds and leaves of monocot and dicot plants. The flowers of these two groups of plants are also different.
  • Recall students’  previuos  (Grade 1V) learning about the basic structure of flowers and ask them:
      —In monocot plant flowers sepals and petals are present in multiple of 3 i. e. a set of 3 or 6
           or 9 etc.
   —-In dicot plant flowers sepals and petals are present in multiple of four of five i. e. a set of 4,
        8, 12 etc. or a set of 5 or 10 or 15 etc.
  • Make a table on the board and ask them copy it on their notebooks.
No. of petals
No. of sepals
Monocot or Dicot
                                                      Sum up / Conclusion
  • The monocot seed has one cotyledon while the dicot seed has two cotyledons.
  • Leafs veins are parallel in monocot plants while veins form network in dicot leaves.
  • In flowers of monocot plant, sepals and petals are present in multiple of three. In dicot plant flowers sepals and petals are present in multiple of four or five.

   Activity 1

  • Students understanding will be assessed by asking the following questions.
         —How do the seeds of monocot and dicot plant differ?
        —-What is meant by venation? Describe the venation patterns found in monocot and dicot
        —-The number of sepals and petals present in a flower can hint the group to which the    
               plant belongs. How is that?

     Activity 2

  • Ask the students to bring different leaves. Ask them to:
—Place the leaf bottom side up on a smooth surface.
—Put a sheet of strong white paper over the leaf.
—Rub the leaf with soft crayon till you have a good print, showing the veins and the margin of                                 
    the leaf.
  • Instruct them to make the leaf rubbings of different kinds of leaves.
  • Ask the students to identify the type of venation.
  • Ask them to classify each leaf as monocot or dicot.
                                                      Follow up

Ask students to collect leaves and flowers of different plants and paste them in the folds of old                  News Papers. Let them dry and then transfer them to their copies. Students should fill the table as follows.


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