Common Disorders of some Parts of Human Body

Lesson Plan of Common Disorders of some Parts of Human Body

(Skin, teeth and stomach)

General Science Grade IV

Students’ Learning Outcomes

·         Identify common disorders of various parts of body and their causes.
·         Suggest ways to keep parts of their body healthy.

Information for Teachers

·         When someone takes sweets, chocolate, candies or drinks, the sugar present in these foods sticks to his teeth and if mouth is not washed, due to sweet surface of teeth germs grow there.
·         We should brush after eating or at least twice a day so that germs should not grow there.
·         We should select a toothbrush that has soft bristles and has appropriate size for our mouth.
·         Eating too much chocolates and sweets is harmful for our stomach, too.
·         Spicy foods damage the inner walls of our stomach. Its severe condition leads to ulcer.
·         Foods taken from hawkers are not prepared by using hygienic principles, so cause food poisoning, vomiting and stomach ache.
·         When we get cut on skin and we don’t take care of it, infection may develop there. We can also have skin rashes in summers or due to infection. The best way to take care of our skin is to keep it clean.

Material / Resources

Chart paper, pictures related to topic, bandage, prickly heat powder, lotion and hand mirros, textbook

Worm up Activity

·         Ask the students if they have ever had tooth ache, stomach ache or skin rashes.
·         Ask them to describe what they left at the time of pain and what they did to get better?
·         Ask students to share their experiences and then introduce today’s topic.


Activity 1

·         Give hand mirrors to students ( you can also ask students a day before to bring small mirrors from homes)
·         Ask the students to observe their own teeth by using the mirror.
·         Ask the following questions to the students:
1.       What colour your teeth have?
2.       Can you see any brown or dark spots on your teeth?
3.       What do you think what it is?
·         Explain about the black or dark areas that it is the spot where germs have damaged the teeth.
·         Ask them do you know how germs get in their mouth.
·         After their responses tell them that the leftover food in mouths starts this problem.
·         Ask how to fix this problem?
(Expected response: by brushing out teeth and keeping them clean)

Activity 2

·         Show some pictures (like the ones shown here) to the students or tell them a story: Sara visited the dentist. Her tooth was hurting. What might have happened to her tooth?
(Expected response: Sara has eaten too much sweets and has not brushed the teeth properly)
·         Inform the students that this is tooth decay.
·         Explain the tooth decay by simple drawing.
·         Inform the students that teeth can be kept healthy if we brush regularly.

Activity 3

·         Ask the students how many times do they brush their teeth?
·         Demonstrate the correct way of brushing the teeth as shown in the diagram.

Activity 4

·         Ask the students if anybody has had stomach ache.
·         Call that student to come in the front of class and explain his/her condition when he/she had stomach ache.
·         Ask the students if they know the causes of stomach ache.
·         Inform the students that use of too much food and unhygienic food can disturb their stomach.
·         Ask how can we avoid getting a stomach ache?
(Expected response: by taking hygienic and proper food)

Activity 5

·          Ask the students that who likes to eat too much spicy food.
(Expected response will be observed by their raised hands)
·         Inform them that too spicy food cause’s ulcer. Inform students about ulcer.

Activity 6

·         Show some pictures of the given materials to the students or show the original ones and ask them why they are used.
·         After getting student’s response inform them that:
—Bandage is used when we get cut on the skin.
—prickly heat powder is used in summers for heat rashes.
—during winters our skin gets dry. We need to moisten it by applying any lotion or cream. Prolonged dry skin can damage by appearing cracks and it often results in painful red skin.
–too much exposure to the sun cause skin to burn

Sum up / Conclusion

·         Brushing the teeth twice a day, using hygienic food, avoiding spicy food, washing hands and keeping our skin clean keeps us healthy.


Activity 1

·         Arrange some pictures on a chart (if available from newspapers) as shown in diagram or otherwise write the names of the bad habits, their results and prevention as mentioned in the columns.
·         Paste the chart paper on the wall or board.
·         Ask the students to demonstrate their learning by linking the columns.


Activity 2

·         Students will be able to decide about the healthy and unhealthy daily activities through charts, like the following
Brush the teeth
How many times do you brush your teeth?
·         One a day———————
·         Twice a day——————
·         Alternate day—————-
Which type of food do you usually have?
·         Hygienic food———————
·         Spicy food————————-
Do you wash hands before every meal? ——–
Number of baths in a week———————–

Follow up

·         Divide students in group of 4—5. Explain that the protective layer on teeth i.e. enamel is made of the same stuff (calcium) as egg shell. Instruct each group like following:
1.       Place an egg in a jar  pour vinegar (enough to cover the egg) in a jar
2.       Cap the jars and label the date on the lid.

3.       Let it as for several days,. Observe changes every day.

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