Lesson Plan of Hygiene and its Basic Principles
General Science Grade IV
Students’ Learning Outcome
Explain hygiene and its basic principles.
Information for Teachers
· Hygiene means the methods/ways/ procedures by which we can live healthy.
· The basic principle of hygiene include taking bath, washing hands, cleaning nails, brushing teeth, washing and combing the hair, doing exercise, playing games and eating safe and healthy food.
Glitter, different fruits, cotton wool, polythene bags, charts, flash cards explaining the basic steps of hygiene, textbook.
Worm up Activity
· Start the lesson by asking students:
— If they have ever cold or been sick.
— Then students how they got sick. (List students’ responses on the board)
· Now choose three students and place a small amount of glitter on their hands.
· Let each students shake hands with at least two other students.
· Then proceed with your normal day routine. Soon there will be traces of glitter on the students’ bodies, objects (books, pencils, rubbers) and door Knobs. Spot of glitter will be everywhere, just like germs!
· At the end of the day, collectively draw the conclusion with emphasis on the germs and washing hands.
· Ask them:
—Are our hands often dirtier than we realize?
—What makes hand dirty?
—When should we wash our hands?
· Explain the concept of hygiene and its importance.
· Ask students what should, we do for hygiene. Encourage them to come up with their own example of hygiene.
· List students’ responses on the board. List should include: hand washing, shower/bath, clothes, brushing teeth etc.
· Go through the list and solve the students’ queries.
· Discuss how washing hands can help us to get rid of germs.
· Ask when should we wash our hands?
· Students enlist the times when we need to wash our hands.
· Explain the importance of keeping the nails trimmed and clean.
· Ask: What would happen if we don’t cut our nails regularly?
· Ask students what else we can do to stay healthy.
· Discuss the importance of dental hygiene (prevent tooth decay and get rid of bad breath).
· Explain / demonstrate the proper method for brushing teeth.
· Ask students to practice brushing by using his/her own toothbrush at home in the same way.
· Demonstrate the proper bathing technique by using a doll in a tub of water.
· Let the students verbally repeat the procedure as you perform it.
——Ask: why do we need to take a bath?
——How often should we take bath?
——What will happen if we don’t take a bath regularly?
· Demonstrate the importance of food hygiene through the following activity.
—–Drop an orange, strawberry and lemon in soil.
—–Pick up the dirty fruits and put them in a polythene (plastic) bag with a damp cotton
—–Place the bag in a dark and warm place.
—–Observe the fruits for three days.
· Explain students that the patches appear on fruits are actually moulds, which have grown there. The fruits have become poisonous and we should not eat them.
· Ask: what will happen if we eat these fruits?
· Conclude that we should only eat well washed, clean and fresh fruits.
· As: can we wear the same shirt every day without washing it?
(Expected response: No)
· Explain the presence of germs on dirty clothes and the importance of changing clothes after proper time.
Sum up / Conclusion
· Germs are always present around us.
· Hygiene means the methods by which we can stay healthy.
· The basic principles of hygiene include taking bath, washing hands, cleaning nails, brushing teeth, washing and combing hair, doing exercise, playing games and eating safe and healthy food. (We should take bath daily especially in summer).
· We should wash our hands, before and after every meal or snack, before and after handling or preparing food, after using the bathroom, after playing, after sneezing or blowing the nose.
· We should keep our nails trimmed and clean.
· Regular washing your teeth (morning and night) is essential for dental hygiene.
· Washing the hair daily is as essential as bathing.
· We should also comb our hair regularly.
· Dirty clothes contain dead skin cells and sweat. Such clothes can cause skin infections.
· We should change our clothes regularly.
· We should always wear socks with any closed shoes.
· Exercise keeps our body healthy and strong. We should make a habit of doing exercise and playing games.
Students will demonstrate their understanding by:
· Naming the parts of human body and linking them to hygiene habits.
· Mentioning risk factors of poor hygiene practices and benefits of good hygiene practices.
· Explain what are the right way to wash hands, brush teeth and take bath
Prepare flash cards like the following and distribute them to at least five students. Each students will read the wordings on his/her flash card loudly. Ask the rest of students to identify the hygienic and unhygienic acts mentioned on the cards.
————I took bath.
————I brush my teeth
———I put on closed shoes but didn’t wear socks
———I changed my clothes
———I cut my nailsFollow up
· Draw this worksheet on board and ask students to note it on their notebooks. Students will complete it in a week.
Daily routine works
Brush teeth before and after breakfast
Take lunch on time
Change clothes when dirty
Wash hands after going toilet
Take dinner on time
Brush teeth before bed