A ‘noun’ is the name of a person, place, animal, quality, idea, action or a thing and is typically used in a sentence as subject or object of the verb or as object of the preposition.

J.C.Nesfield shows that Nouns are of five different kinds: Proper, Common, Collective, Material and Abstract.  But Wren and Martin show that Nouns are of four kinds: Proper, Common, Collective and Abstract.

However it is convenient to classify Nouns in nine different categories.

1.                    Proper Noun,

2.                  Common Noun,

3.                Collective Noun,

4.              Material Noun,

5.            Concrete Noun,

6.           Abstract Noun,

7.          Possessive Noun.

R      Regular Noun.

 Ir    Irregular Noun.


1.1.   Proper Noun:

 A ‘Proper noun’ is a noun that is used for particular living or non-living things. As;

The Holly Quran,




Khalid.  Etc.

Look! Khalid is coming towards you.

They live in Bahawalpur.

We offered prayer in the Mosque of Data Durbar.

Karachi is a big city.

Afshan is a girl

Naved is a smart boy.

So we can say that Khalid, Bahawalpur, the Mosque of Data Durbar, Karachi, and Afshan are Proper noun.

1.2. Common Noun:

 A ‘common noun’ is a noun that is used for common living and non-living things of the same class or king. As;






Nurse, etc.

It is a pen.

She is a woman.

Karachi is a big city.

Afshan is a girl

Naved is a smart boy.

So we can say that pen, woman, big city, girl, and smart boy are common noun.

Dear students! Common Noun is further divided into:

Countable Common Nouns

Uncountable Common Nouns

1.2.1. Countable Common Nouns:

All those common objects which can be counted are called, ‘countable common nouns,’ as;

(A book) (Two books) (An egg)  (Six eggs)  (Two dozen eggs) Etc.

You have three houses.

There are some apples in the basket.

Mother is washing plates.

1.2.2. Uncountable Common Nouns

All those common objects which can be counted or divided into equal parts are called, ‘uncountable common nouns,’ as;

Wash out this dirt.

Honesty is the best policy.

Why are you angry?

3. Collective Noun

A ‘collective noun’ is a noun that denotes a group, collection of similar things and person, considered as one complete whole, as; the crowd, the army, the class, the fleet, the bunch of lower, the jury, the herd, etc.

Our army defeated the Indian army in the battle of 1965.

The jury found the accused guilty of theft.

I saw a herd of cattle in the field.

Note- Difference between a ‘common noun’ and a ‘collective noun’:

There may be many sheep in a field, but there is only flock of sheep/birds. Here ‘sheep’ is a common noun, because it stands for a group of sheep.

Note- Nesfield also shows a distinction between a ‘collective noun’ and a ‘noun of multitude’:

A collective noun denoted one undivided whole and, takes, the verb in singular:

The jury consists of twelve persons.

A noun of multitude denotes the individuals of the group separately and, hence , the verb is plural, although the noun is singular:

The jury (the men on the jury) was divided in their opinions.

However, both the collective noun and the noun of multitude are followed by the definite article ‘the’ as a rule

4. Material Nouns

A ‘material noun’ is a noun that denotes such matter or element through which different things can be made, as;

This ring is made of gold.

This chair is made of wood.

Please give me a glass of water.

It is raining heavily.

Give me one cup of sugar.

I want an iron rod.

We should note that gold is a material noun but ‘ring’ is a common noun; wood is a material noun but ‘chair’ is a common noun; water is a material noun but ‘glass’ is a common noun. In such way, raining, sugar and iron is material noun.

Note- no article usually used before a material noun, but when it is specified, it takes the definite article ‘the’ as;

Coal is black. The Coal of Baluchistan is if good quality.

He drinks water. The water of the River Sind is better for crops

5. The Concrete Noun

The Concrete nouns are nouns that you can physically see and touch. You can experience through five senses like sight, smell, hearing, taste and touch, as; tiger, nose, head, coffee, soap, finger, children, taxi, and dog, Etc.

6. Abstract Noun

The name of a quality, action or state which can`t be seen or touched is called “Abstract Noun” i.e. touched, honesty, illness, etc. these nouns can`t be measured rather they are felt, as

Quality: wisdom, bravery, hardness, goodness, kindness, cleverness, etc.

Action: loss, laughter, theft, hatred, judgment, marriage, sale, etc.

State: sickness, youth, poverty, manhood, childhood, kingship, sleep, etc.

Note- thus we see that four kinds of (Proper, Common, Collective and Material) previously described relate to objects of sense that can be seen or touched. But an Abstract Noun refers to qualities, states, or action that can`t be seen or touched; it can only be felt.

We know that a rock is hard. We also identify that iron is stiff. We also know that brick is rigid. We can, therefore, speak of hardness apart from rock or iron or brick or any other object having the same quality.

The names of Academics subjects of Human groups and sciences are also Abstract Nouns, e.g. Physics, Chemistry, Philosophy, English, Geography, etc.

Abstract Nouns are formed from:

From Adjective: as, kindness from kind; honesty from honest, bravery from brave. Etc.

From Verbs:  as, obedience from obey, movement from move, arrival from arrive; growth from grow, etc.

From Common Nouns: as, childhood from child; slavery from slave, mastery from master,  etc.

7.  Possessive Noun

These nouns show ownership or possession. Usually, these words would be a singular or plural noun, but in the possessive form they are used as adjectives to modify another shape of noun or pronoun We make these nouns by adding apostrophe (`s) to the noun i.e. Aslam`s pen, father`s cap, Bird`s feather, Enemies’ forces, Akbar`s house, Neighbor’s guest, Table`s leg, Lemons` acidity, Today`s newspaper, Apple`s taste, etc.

8. Regular Noun

These nouns form their plural by adding (s, es) at the end. Their spellings don`t change for making plural from i.e. cars, desks, flies, armies, etc.

(Oasis – Oases, Letter – Letters, arm – arms, room – rooms, cry – cries , bench – benches, etc. )

9. Irregular Noun

These nouns make their plural form by changing spellings. Thus, their plural are formed in irregular way i.e. men from man, children from child, teeth from tooth, etc.

 Foot from feet,  

 Goose from geese,

Ox from oxen,

 Mouse from mice,

 Louse from lice, etc.



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