# Lesson Plan of Matter and its States

#### Students’ Learning Outcomes

·         Describe the properties of the three states of matter on the basis of arrangement of particles.
·         Demonstrate the arrangement of particles in the three states of matter through models.

#### Information for Teachers

·         All the three states of matter are made up of tiny particles which can’t be seen. It is the way the particles are arranged in matter that decides its physical state.
·         Draw in figures 1, 2 and 3 on the board. Following properties can be explained on the basis of arrangement of particles.
·         Solid have fixed shape and occupy fixed volume.
·         Liquids have fixed volume but no definite shape.
·         Gases neither have fixed shape nor fixed volume.

#### Solids:

·         In solids, the particles are joined together tightly in a regular way.
·         They occupy fixed positions where they can only vibrate.
·         Their positions don’t change.
·

#### Liquids:

In liquids, the particles are arranged irregularly. They can slide over one another as they are in motion continuously.

#### Gases:

·         In gases, the particles are at a very large distance from one another.
·         They are independent of one another and move in all possible directions.

#### Material / Resources

Plasticine, small bouncing ball, dry peas, plastic tray and plastic sheet, textbook.

#### Worm up Activity

·         Ask fifteen students to come forward. Arrange them in five rows having three students in each row. Ask them to hold their hands together and keep their feet fixed on their positions.
·         Tell the students that the particles in a solid are arranged like these boys and their position are fixed.
·         Ask all the students to disturb their arrangement. Keep moving within the available space while holding their hands together.
·         Inform the whole class that the particles in a liquid have an irregular arrangement, where they are constantly moving. They can’t however move away from each other like these boys.
·         Now ask all the fifteen students to move away from each other and spread yourself in the whole classroom. Keep moving in all possible directions.
·         Inform the whole class that the particles in a gas are moving in all possible directions like these boys. They are also independent of one another.

#### Activity 1

·         Let all the students see the figure 1 and observe the arrangement of particles in first tray.
·         Ask the students to draw the figure 4-a.
·         Inform the students that the fig. 4-a represents the particles present in a solid like ice. These particles are regularly arranged. There exists strong force of attraction between these particles. Due to this force, these particles occupy fixed positions where they can vibrate.
·         Ask students the following questions.
. Why solids have a fixed shape? (Students’ response:  since the particles of a solid have their
Positions fixed, so its shape is also fixed)
. Why solids occupy fixed volume?
(Students’ response: since the distances between the particles don’t change so the volume
Of solid remain fixed. However if you heat the solids they expand and the distance between
their particles increases.)

#### Activity 2

·         Ask two students to come forward and arrange the plastic balls or green peas in a plastic Tray..
·         Let all students see the figure 2 and observe the arrangements of particles in second tray.
·         Ask the students to draw the fig._5 again as an exercise in their note books.
·         Inform the students that:
·         Figure _5 represents the particles present in a liquid like water. These particles have irregular arrangement.
·         There exists a force of attraction between these particles which do not allow them to move away from each other.
·         These particles not only can move but also can slip pass each other Their positions are, however, not fixed.
·         Ask the students following questions.
·         Why liquids do not have fixed shape? (Students “response: since the particles of a liquid are mobile and do not have their positions fixed, so its shape is is not fixed.)
·         Why liquids cover fixed space or have fixed volume ?(Students “ response: since the particles of a liquid cannot move away from each other, so the space they occupy remains fixed )
·         Why it is possible for us to transfer liquids from one container to another?(Students “response: The Particles of a liquid are mobile and can slip pass each other , this enables us to transfer the liquid from one container to another).

#### Activity 3

·         Ask two students to come forward and arrange the plastic balls or green peas in a plastic tray as shown in figure 3.
·         Let all students see the figure 3 and observe the balls spread over a table.
·         Ask the students to draw the fig 6 as an exercise in their note books.
·         Inform the students that.
·         Figure 6 represents the particles present in a gas like air
·         The particles in a gas are far apart from each other.
·         There exists very weak force of attraction between these particles.They are practically independent of one another
·         The particles are moving very fast and in all possible direction.
·         Ask the Students following questions.
·         Why gases do not have a fixed shape ? (Students response: since their particles are mobile and do not have fixed positions, so their shape is not fixed).
·         Why gases do not ocuupy a fixed volume? (Students response : The particles of a gas are independent of one another and they can move wherever they like and in whichever direction they like, so its volume is not fixed. Its particles spread throughout the available space.)

#### Sum up/Conclusion

·         In solids, the particles are arranged in a regular way where they occupy fixed positions.Due to their fixed positions, a solid has a fixed shape and it occupies a fixed volume.
·         In liquids, the particles are arranged in an irregular way.These particles are not only move also can slip pass each other. Due to their movements, a liquids does not have a fixed shape. Since the particles of a liquid are attracted by one another and they cannot move away from one another, so their volume is fixed.
·         In gases, the particles are independent of one another.They also move in all possible directions. Due to this reason gases neither have a fixed shape nor a fixed volume.

#### Assessment :

·         Ask the following questions :
·         What happens when a perfume is sprayed in a room? (Students response: it’s a particles like the particles of a gas move away each other and occupy all the space available in the room.)