LESSON PLAN OF PARTICIPLES
A word formed from a Verb and having the characteristics of both Verb and adjective e.g. going, gone, being, been, and Adjective; as, working woman, burnt toast or a Noun; as, good breeding. It is also partly a Verb and partly an Adjective. A participle is a double part of speech——a Verb and Adjective
a) I saw Na deem eating an apple.
Here eating is a Participle. It is formed from the Verb ‘eat’. It does the work of an Adjective and a Verb.
KINDS OF PARTICIPLES
A. There are three kinds of participles:
a) 1. Present Participle = first form of verb + ing.
b) 2. Past Participle = third form of verb
c) 3. Perfect Participle = having + third form of verb.
The ‘ing’ form of the verb is called Present Participle. It doesn`t denote time but an unfinished or incomplete action; as,
1. I saw him crossing the road.
2. I heard someone weeping.
3. They found the baby crying for milk.
It is the third form of the verb. It ends in d, Ed, t, n, or en. The past participle shows finished or complete action; as,
1. A fallen tree lay across the road.
2. A broken pen is lying of the table.
3. They entered the hall.
4. He admitted his mistake.
A perfect participle is formed by putting before the past participle of the verb. It denotes an action, which was finished in the past; as,
1. Having finished his work, he went out play.
2. Having fed the dog, he sat down for his dinner.
3. Having been rebuked by the master, the servant refused to work with him.
(Here having + been +third form of the verb rebuke is the perfect participle passive)
USE OF PARTICIPLE
A Present Participle ( Verb + Ing)
A Participle qualifies a Noun.
1. A bubblingspring is very beautiful to look at.
2. Never try to get into the running train.
3. A rollingstone gathers no moss.
4. Hearing the noise, the baby woke up.
In the above sentences bubbling, running, rolling and hearing noun represent spring, train, stone and noise.
If Present Participle is made from a transitive verb, it takes an object.
1. I met a student carrying a bag of books.
2. There came a man carrying a basket of apples.
3. We met a girl carrying a bunch of flowers.
In the above sentences, carry is a transitive verb so it has a object.
It is used to denote the second activity after the completion of the first.
1. Washing his hands, he ate fruit.
2. Finishing the work, we went out for a walk.
3. Writing an essay, he went to buy fruit.
It is used in continuous tenses.
1. I am playing tennis.
2. We are learning our lessons.
3. He will be coming home soon.
It may govern a pronoun.
1. Hearing him speak, I was pleased.
2. Seeing him fall from the tree, I rushed to help him.
It may be modified by an adverb.
1. Loudly knocking at the gate, he asked permission.
2. Frankly speaking, it was not my intention to harm you.
It may be modified by an Adverb of Degree such as: very, too, quite, rather etc.
1. It was a very charming sight.
2. He is rather hard-working.
It may be used attributively.
1. The thundering clouds frightened the child.
2. The roaring lion escaped the cage.
It may be used predicatively.
1. He kept me waiting.
2. The teacher kept him standing.
Absolutely with a noun or pronoun going before it;
1 .The weather being fine, we went out to work.
2. Allah willing, we will certainly succeed.
Past Participle (Verb +d, Ed, t, n, en)
Third form of a verb is called past participle.
Work – worked, close – closed, drive –driven.
It presents a completed action
1. The tired student began to rest.
2. The trees were laden with fruit.
3. Blinded by dust-storm, we lost our way.
4. The frightened child began to cry.
It qualifies a noun that is placed after it.
1. She had a wearied look.
2. Broken marble can injure your feet.
3. The injured men were crying for water.
It functions as adjective which is complement of the verb.
1. The students were tired.
2. The shops were closed.
3. The girls were discouraged.
It functions as object complement.
1. I saw the passenger injured.
2. We have heard the song sung.
3. The news left us dazed.
In the above sentences may be used as ‘passive voice’ as,
1. The passenger was injured.
2. The song was sung.
3. We were dazed.
It functions like an adverb modifying the verb.
1. She walked out offended.
2. He left the hospital completely cured.
3. Afaq returned home very upset
It helps to form adjective phrase qualifying the noun placed before it.
1. The oranges plucked yesterday are still unripe.
2. The goods stolen from the market have been recovered.
3. People injured in the accident were shifted to the hospital.
PERFECT PARTICIPLE (Having + past participle)
It is a verbal adjective form of verb converted into third form of verb. Having is used before it.
1. Having worked hard, he went to sleep/
2. Having loaded the cart, the farmer went home.
3. The sun having set, we came home.
Perfect participle may be the combination of present participle and past participle. It may be in active voice or passive voice.
1. Having read the book, we went to school. (Active Voice)
2. Having been warned by me, he became serious. (Passive Voice)
3. Having learnt the lesson, we began to play. (Active Voice)
4. Having been notified by the principal, the student appeared before the committee. (Passive Voice)
Present Participle with continuous tenses of verb “Be”.
1. I am taking exercise.
2. I was taking exercise.
3. I shall be taking exercise.
Past Participle with perfect tenses of verb “Have”,
1. I have worked.
2. I had worked.
3. I shall have worked.
Past participle in the passive voice with tense of verb “Be”,
1. I am beaten.
2. I was beaten.
3. I shall be beaten.