Whatever we talk is called ‘speech’. The words are divided into different kinds according to their use or the work they do in a sentence. Each word  is actually which is part of our spoken speech. Hence, All types of words are called ‘Parts of speech’. There are eight parts of speech, which are: as,

1. Noun

2. Pronoun

3. Adjective

4. Verb

5. Adverb

6. Preposition

7. Conjunction

8. Interjection


A noun is the name of a person, place, animal, quality, idea, action or a thing and is typically used in a sentence as subject or object of the verb or as object of the preposition. 

1. The Sun rises in the East.

2. Karachi is an international city.

3.Rahim is a brave boy.  

4. This cow give us milk. 

5. Amir is the best student in the class. 

6. Gold is a valuable matter. (name of matter or substance)

7. Honesty is the best policy.  (name of quality, state or action)


 A pronoun is a word which is used in the place of a noun in the sentences. For example: he, she, it, I, we, you, they, someone, who, that, which, whom, what and whose. The word pronoun can do all of the things that noun ca do in the sentences. these pronoun can be used as subjects, direct objects, indirect objects, object of the preposition, and more in the sentences.

1. Ali is a boy. He studies in our school.

2. Nasima is a girl. All like her.

3. Rahim is a student. Who is going to school.

Pronouns are divided into three person; as,

    1) First person; I, We, M, Us, My, Mine, Our, and Ours

   2) Second Person: You, You, and Yours.

   3) Third Person: He, She, It, They, Them, Him, Her, His, Hers, Their, Theirs and Its.

3. Adjective

An Adjective is a word that is typically serving as a modifier of a noun to denote a quality, origin, color, size of the thing named, to indicate its quantity or extent, or to specify a thing as distinct from something. It limits or restricts the meaning of Noun or Pronoun.

An Adjective usually comes right before a noun: as, ‘A blue shirt’, ‘100 sheep’s’. Whenever an adjective follows a linking verb such as be or seem, it is called ‘Predicate Adjective’. As, ‘This machine is huge’, ‘The technician seem happy’

Most adjectives can be used as predicate adjectives, although some are always used before a noun. Likewise, a few adjectives can only be used as predicate adjectives and are never used before a noun.

Some adjectives describe qualities that can exist in different amounts or degrees. To perform this function, the adjective will either change in form usually by adding -er or -est or will be used with words like more, most, very, slightly, etc.: ‘the olderboys,’ ‘the longest river of the country,’ ‘a very strongfeeling of sadness,’ ‘more expensive than that one. Other adjectives define qualities that do not vary—‘natural energy source,’ ‘a medicalpractitioner’—and do not change form.

 Now read the following sentences: 

1. Ali is a good boy.

2. He is blind.

3. Our cow gives much milk. 

4. Give me two orange and three apples. 

in sentence 1, ‘good’ shows the quality of a boy.

in sentence 2, ‘blind’ shows the infirmity of the boy.

in sentence 3, ‘much’ describes quantity.

in sentence 4, ‘two’ and ‘three’ show how many orange and apples are required.

All the above words (good, blind, much, and two and three) are Adjectives as they qualify a Noun or a Pronoun.

An Adjective Qualifies a Noun or a Pronoun in two ways:

 1. Attributive Adjective     2. Predicative Adjective

When an adjective is placed before a noun it is used attributively; ‘ Don`t laugh at the poor man’ (poor is used as an Attributive Adjective). But when it qualifies a noun or a pronoun and is placed after a verb, it is used predicatively: ” He is a Pakistani’ (Pakistani is used as a Predicative)

4. Verb

A word that characteristically is the grammatical center of a predicate and expresses an act (sing), occurrence (develop), or state of being (exist). Nearly every sentence needs a verb. In other more than one language is inflected for agreement with the subject, for tense, for voice, for mood, or for aspect, and that characteristically has rather full descriptive meaning and characterizing quality but is sometimes nearly devoid of these especially when used as an auxiliary or linking verb.

Verbs are of four types:

1.     1.  ‘Being’ verb: The dog is faithful.

2.     2.  ‘Having’ verb: I have two apples in hand.

3.     3.  ‘Doing’ verb: The boy kicks the football.

4.     4.  An action or state in any form: the moon looks bright.

Some more examples:

              a)He is playing hockey.

              b)The girl is reading.

             c) The thief is running.

              d) The lady is talking.

              e) We saw a movie.

              f)You typed a few letters.

             g) They watched a Kabady match.

5. Adverb

An adverb is a word that modifies or qualifies more about:

1.      1.  A verb

2.     2.   An adjective

3.      3.  Another adverb

4.      4.  Preposition

5.      5.  Conjunction

a) Salma goes slowly. (Adverb modifies a verb)

b) She is a very cute woman. (Adverb modifies an adjective)

c) The horse walks very slowly. (An adverb modifies another adverb)

d)The bird flew exactly over our head. (Adverb modifies a preposition)

e) I like him simply because he is very intelligent. (An adverb modifies a conjunction)

An adverb is a word or phrases that expressing a relation of place, time, circumstance, manner, cause, number, condition, contrast and degree, etc.

Time: now, then, soon, early, ever, already, tomorrow, ago, since, presently, late, never, afterwards, yesterday, next, daily, previously, frequently, once, soon, etc.

Place: here, there, far, near, above, under, inside, within, where, out, up, along, away, below, in, outside, on, etc.

Manner:  well, merrily, badly, loudly, sadly, gladly, rightly, neatly, slowly, quickly, surely, probably etc.

Number: once, twice, thrice, again, always, never, sometimes, often, frequently, firstly, seldom, regularly.

Degree: very, much, partly, wholly, more, least, partially, enough, somewhat, most, too, farther, altogether, so, little, less, almost, quite, fully, etc.

Reason: as, so, because, hence, further, henceforth, hereafter, therefore, so, onward, though, thence, in addition, thenceforth, yet, etc.

Condition: if, unless, etc.

Purpose: that, so that, etc.

Contrast: Though, although, etc.

 6. Preposition 

 A preposition is a word placed before a noun or noun-equivalent to show in what relation the person or thing denoted thereby stands to something else. (J. C. Nest field)

A preposition is a word used with a noun or a pronoun to show how the person or thing denoted by the noun or pronoun stands in relation to something else. (Wren & Martin) 

A preposition is a word that is placed before a noun or a pronoun to show the relation of that noun or pronoun with any other word of the sentence. (P. C. Das) 

Words that organize nouns or pronouns and usually precede and express their relationship to other words or elements in a sentence, such as ‘man on the platform’, ‘coming after dinner’, ‘why are you doing this? ‘

Prepositions are a significnt part of sentence in English Language. It is used to indicate the relationship between nouns or pronouns in sentences and other words in sentences. Verbs should always be followed by nouns or pronouns in sentences. Prepositions are words that indicate direction (such as ‘letter to you’), location (‘at the door’) or time (till- morning) and are nearly always unimportant, valueless or very common words ‘) or acquaint with objects (‘orange plastic bowl, ‘‘Prepositions are typically followed by objects that can be nouns (noon), noun phrases (doors), or pronouns (you).

A word or group of words  which are used before a noun or pronoun in sentence to show place, position, time or method is called, ‘preposition’, as;

Among the most common prepositions are by, for, from, in, from, to, and with. Other general prepositions are about, above, opposite, then, opposite, along, between, around, before, behind, below, below, beside, between, inside, outside, outside, such as, near, closed, above, above, outside, Exit, above, then, because, right, up, down, up, inside, outside.

       1. The man on the railway platform.

      2. Came after dinner. 

      3. It has been raining since morning.

      4. I worked from 5 p.m. to 8 p.m..

      5. She swam across the river.

      6. He came at my birthday party.

     7. He ran across the road.

     8. He ran around the the playground.

     9. The ball is in the box.

    10. The fan is over the chair.

The Conjunction 

The ‘Conjunction’ is a word which merely joins two sentences, connect clauses and sometimes coordinate words in the same clause. The conjunction is the action or an instance of two or more events or things occurring at the same point in time or a space, think of them as gluing words. This glue words, phrases, and clause together. If you`d like to have your own close friend bring up for you music and snacks to your party, it`s pretty hard to do it with a conjunction.

Zahid and Fahd are brothers.

she tried her best but failed.

wait here till I call you in.

Alia and Norin are good girls.

Ali is a boy but Hina is a girl.

Learn your lesson or leave the class.

Some Conjunctions are used alone while some are used in the form of pair and can not be used separately are as under:

Alone used Conjunction: and, if, till, as well as, either, otherwise, whereas, nevertheless, but, lest, until, no less than, neither, still, only, unless, because, too, or, else, however and while.

The Conjunctions in the form of pairs: either. either…or, such…that, so….as, so…that, no sooner….. then, neither…..nor, though…..yet, as…as, scarcely…..when, whether….. or, such…….as, both…and,, not only….. but also.

8. Interjection 

An ‘interjection’ is a word or sound which is used to express some unexpected feelings, like astonishment, revulsion, happiness, eagerness, or passion into a sentence. . The Interjection is Reciprocal action or influence.

Interjection = inter (info) + jection (throwing)

Interjection may express:

a) Joy: Hurrah! How! [How nice to meet you]

b) Grief: Alas! [Alas! The man is dead]

c) Surprise: Ah! , Ha! , What!  , How!

d) Encouragement: Bravo!

‘Certain groups of words are also used to express some sudden feeling or emotion: as Ah me!  Shame!  Well done! Good gracious! Good heavens! Etc.

Note– An interjection, grammatically speaking, is not a part of speech as it has no connection with any other word of the sentence. But, in a comprehensive logic, an interjection is a part of our speech. From now it is also included as a part of speech in grammatically.


Leave a Comment