Lesson Plan of Problem-Consonants for Non-native Speakers of English
Students` Learning Outcomes
- Pronounce in minimal pairs, common problem-consonants for Pakistani speakers of English
Information for Teachers
- There are five vowels in English language. They are: a, e, I, o, and u. the remaining English letters are consonants.
- Problems in consonants for Pakistani speakers of English: students find difficulty in two sounds like ‘I’ and ‘r’ (light, right/ led, red), ‘p’ and ‘b’ (pat, bat/ pit, bit),’s’ and ‘z’ (sip, zip) and their meanings.
- Minimal pairs: Minimal pairs are pairs of words or phrases that differed only in one sound in a word and have totally different meaning. Practicing minimal pairs can help students understand the minute differences in pronunciation between one word and another. Minimal pairs are for vowels and consonants both. In this lesson focus is only on consonants minimal pairs.
- While teaching the lesson, the teacher should also use textbook where in it is applicable.
Writing board, chalk/marker, duster, textbook
- Recap the vowel and consonant sounds and letter with students.
- Vowel: a, e, i, o, u.
- Consonants: b, c, d, f, g, h, j, k, l, m, n, p, q, r, s, t, v, w, x, y, z
- Ask students to enlist some words starting with the letter‘s’. Expected answer: school, screen, style, special, soap, salt, sentence, start, stop, sharpener, etc.
- Record their answers on the writing board like this: school screen style soap salt switch
- Check their pronunciation. Words having a vowel after letter ‘s’ are correctly pronounced but the ones without a vowel after ‘s’ are pronounced by Pakistani speakers of English by adding a vowel after letter ‘s’ for example sakool, sacreen, satyle, special, satart, satop which is wrong.
- Discuss with them that these are errors we make while pronouncing the consonants of English language.
- Ask students to work in pairs and think of words where we add a vowel ourselves like class as calass, example of incorrect pronunciation are given in this table.
- Tell them that when vowel comes after the first consonant letter, then that word is pronounced properly by them but when a consonant comes after the first consonant letter then there is no need to add a vowel to it.
- Students read, repeat and recite the words correctly.
- Students add letter ‘g’ to the following minimal pairs: kin, thin, win, sun.
- By adding letter ‘g’ it became: king, rang, thing, wing, sung. The meaning and pronunciation of the words change in minimal pairs (see definition in teachers` information.)
- Write them on the writing board.
- Play the Game 1: Ask students to say it in a louder voice, increasing the volume or ask students to speak in a whisper very quietly.
- Play Game 2: Experiment with speed. ‘How fast can you say it?’ building up speed like a train.
- Look at the writing board and tell the difference and similarity in the list of words written on the writing board. (The consonants and vowel letters are same just by adding letter ‘g’ to the list of words made the difference.)
- Revise the concept of minimal pairs in students.
- Ask the students to work in pairs and make minimal pair words with letters ‘at’ and ‘in’.
- Monitor and help the students while working.
- Possible answer:
- (-at) cat, mat, sat, hat, fat, rat
- (-in) bin, pin, tin, sin, fin
Sum up/ Conclusion
- Ask children to repeat the words in class by answering questions like?
- Write ‘school’ on the writing board and ask them how it is pronounced.
- Answer: skool not sakool or iskool.
- Write ‘class’ on the writing board and ask them how it is pronounced.
- Answer: class not calass
- Write ‘screen’ on the writing board and ask them how it is pronounced.
- Answer: screen not sacreen.
- Write ‘study’ on the writing board and ask them how it is pronounced.
- Answer: Study not satudy or istudy.
- Tell them that the Urdu version for the words sometimes leads to incorrect pronunciation in English.
- Ask the students what are the minimal pairs with ‘-in’ and ‘-at’.
- Write the answers on the writing board and ask the students to write in their notebooks.
- Also assess students` responses during class activities and follow up activities.
- Involve the students in solving problems given exercise at the end of unit/chapter.
- Make a list of five minimal pair words with letters ‘en’ and ‘ap’.