Students’ Learning Outcomes
· Recall the rules of punctuation learnt earlier.
· Relate punctuation rules to support accuracy and fluency in reading.
· Recognize and use full stop with some abbreviations; apostrophe with contractions and hyphen to intersection two words that performance as one unit.
Information for Teachers
· Punctuation: is the use of signs and symbols which make the text meaningful.
· Punctuation is “the use of spacing, straight signs, and certain typographical devices as supports to the accepting and the correct reading, both silently and audibly, of handwritten and written texts.”
Ø Sentence trimmings with some form of punctuation, i.e. full-stop (.) and question mark (?) or an exclamation mark (!).
Ø Recognize and use an apostrophe (‘) to show possessions and exclamation mark (!) to show strong feelings.
Ø A comma (,) is used to show a pause in the sentences, or naming a list of items. Take a short pause when comma comes in a sentence.
Ø Semi-colon (;) The semicolon (;) is used to link autonomous clauses. It shows a nearer connection between the clauses than a period would show. For example: John was hurt; he knew she only said it to distress him.
Ø Colon: (:)A colon (:) has two main usages:
Ø The first is after a word familiarizing a quotation, an elucidation, an example, or a series. It is also frequently used after the greeting of a business letter.
Ø The second is inside time languages. Within time, it is used to disperse out the hour and minute: 12: 15 p.m.
Ø Inverted commas (“-“) show that the enclosed words were spoken by someone.
Ø Intonation is the rise and fall in speech. Speech can be made effective by using variety in speech.
Ø Abbreviations are shortened forms of words. Most abbreviation has a period or full stop (.) at the end.
Ø Abbreviations of days of week and months of year can be made by taking first 3 letters and putting a full stop in the end.
Ø Apostrophes are used to show a missing letter in a word. Apostrophes are also used to form contractions, such as / have can change into /’ve. An apostrophe is used where letters have been omitted.
Ø A contraction is a combination of two words which results in a single word. Contractions are common in speaking and in formal writing. E.g. let’s- let us.
Ø Use a hyphen (-) to join the parts of compound numbers and to join two or more words that work together as one adjective before a noun. It is used to avoid confusion and misreading by joining compound words. E.g. light-blue paint, web-based, board-certified, thirty-two, etc.
Material / Resources
Board, chalk/marker, chart paper and textbook.
Worm up activity
· Ask the students where do we use full stop (.), question mark (?), apostrophe (‘), exclamation mark (!) a comma (,), inverted commas (“- “), a contraction (/) and a hyphen (-).
· Ask the students to point to the right punctuation mark following these hints:
Ø If I am very excited, which one will show my feeling (!), (?).
Ø If I want to know something which one will I use (?), (;).
Ø What will I put at the end of a sentence? (.), (-).
Ø Which one shows a short pause in the middle of a sentence (,), (.)?
Ø Now call the students on the board in turns to guess and write what each short form stands for. Write the full word or words on each line.
· Help the students with spellings.
1. Mon. _________________(Monday)
2. Kg __________________ (Kilogram)
3. Thu. ___________________(Thursday)
4. Mr. ___________________(Mister)
6. Cm. __________________(Centimeter)
7. Sec. __________________(Second)
8. L. ___________________ (Letter)
9. St. __________________ (Street)
10. Dr. __________________(Doctor)
· Dive the class into pairs.
· Ask them to find out any two sentences from their English textbook with the following punctuation marks.
Full stop (.)
Exclamation Mark (!)
Question Mark (?)
· Ask them to discuss their meanings with their partner.
· Each pair will write the sentences in the notebooks.
· After that, ask different pairs to read their sentences for the whole class.
· Choose a passage from the textbook before the lesson. Passage must have commas, full stops, inverted commas, question marks and exclamation marks.
· Then ask the students to copy the passage from the board in their notebooks and insert punctuation marks and capital letters.
(Did you see the rabbit go down that hole said the farmer no said sara look over there by that big tree said the farmer oh yes the rabbit has just jumped out again said sara well it might not be the same rabbit exclaimed the farmer there are lots of rabbits in the hole)
Solved passage (For teacher’s reference only):
“Did you see the rabbit go down that hole?” said the farmer. “No”, said Sara. “Look over there by that big tree”, said the farmer. “Oh yes! The rabbit has just jumped out again!” said Sara. “Well, it might not be the same rabbit!” exclaimed the farmer, “There are lots of rabbits in that hole”.
· Explain the concept of hyphen (-) and draw the following table on the board and ask the students to match the words in the first column and write the new word using hyphen (-):
1. Basket backed ___________
2. Make off ______________
3. T up ______________
4. Warm ball ____________
5. Half up _____________
6. Baby known _________
7. Well cot ____________
8. Take shirt ___________
9. Well understanding ___
10. Mis done __________
1. Basket backed _____Basket- ball
2. Make off ________Make- up
3. T up ________ T- shirt
4. Warm ball _______Warm-up
5. Half up ________Half-backed
6. Baby known ____ Baby-cot
7. Well cot _______ Well-done
8. Take shirt _______Take-off
9. Well understanding –Well-known
10. Mis done ________Mis-understanding
§ Highlight the use of apostrophe(‘) here to make the contraction in written and spoken English:
I am I’m
You are you’re
We are we’re
They are they’re
He is he’s
She is she’s
It is it’s
There is there’s
That is that’s
Sum up / Conclusion
· Ask the students:
Ø What is punctuation?
Ø Where do we use full stops, capital letters, commas, inverted commas and question marks?
· Ask the students to find and write 5 contractions, abbreviations, hyphen, apostrophes and inverted commas.
· Assess the students’ understanding and learning through their responses.
· Ask the students to make a list of 5 contractions, abbreviations and hyphened words in their notebooks.