# Scales of Temperature

## Students Learning Outcomes

• Draw and label the device for measuring temperature.
• Measure and record the body temperature using a laboratory thermometer and clinical thermometer.
• Suggest the safety measures required in using thermometers. Img

### Information for Teachers

• Temperature of body is measured by a device called Thermometer.
• There are two types of thermometer;
1. A laboratory thermometer.
2. A clinical thermometer.
• There are two common scales on the thermometers;
1. Celsius or Centigrade scale, (C)
2. Fahrenheit scale,(F)

• A laboratory thermometer has Centigrade scale with two prominent 0C and 100C.
• Clinical thermometer is designed to give reading only from 35C to 42C or 95F to 108F.
• Temperature beyond above ranges is not possible.
• There is constriction inside the clinical thermometer.
• Water freezes at 0C and boils at 100C.
• A healthy human body has temperature 37C or 98F.
• Thermometers are used carefully to avoid breakage.

### Material / Resources

Writing board, chalk/marker, duster, candle, match box, tape water, two beakers of different sizes, an iron rod, two laboratories and two clinical thermometers preferably filed with some colored liquid, some ice cubes, a wooden blocl, textbook

### Worm up Activity

• Do the following worm up activities to involve the students;
• Divide whole class in two groups.
• Provide a laboratory thermometer and a clinical thermometer to each group.
• Explain the division made on thermometers.
• Ask them in which of given thermometers, there is a constriction.
• “What is the use of this construction?”
• Instruct a student from each group to grasp the bulbs of thermometer in both hands for 1 minute.
• Ask the other student to observe the rising liquid level in both the thermometers.
• Now direct the students to hold the thermometer from top.
• Ask the students to observe the descending liquid level in both the thermometers.
• Ask them “What did they observe?” (Expected Students` response: The liquid level falls promptly in that thermometer which is without constriction. It is the laboratory thermometer) )
• Inform the students that a constriction doesn`t allow the liquid level to fall down. Due to this reason, the reading remains the same in a clinical thermometer for reasonable time.
• Ask how we can bring the level of liquid down in this thermometer. (A jerk is applied to the clinical thermometer to bring the liquid down into the bulb.

### Development

Activity 1

• Divide the class into groups.
• Give each group a laboratory thermometer and a clinical thermometer.
• Ask two selected students from each group to place the given laboratory thermometer and a clinical thermometer under their arms pits, carefully.
• After two minutes, ask them to show their thermometers to their group fellows to note their body temperatures.
• Draw the table on the board and make a list of reading found by groups.

 Groups Temperature on 0C- scale Temperature on 0F- scale Group 1 37 C 99 F Group 2 36 C 98 F
• Inform the students that the temperature of healthy person is ranges from 36 C to 37 C or 98 F to 99 F.

Activity 2

• Ask the students “What cares are required in using thermometers?”
• Make a list of their proper answers on the board.
• Students` responses;
1. Don`t insert the thermometer directly into the mouth.
2. Avoid striking the thermometer to a hard thing.
3. Don`t put the bulb of thermometer directly into the flame.

Activity 3

• Put some ice cubes in the fresh water in a small beaker and shake it well.
• Ask the students to note the thermometer of mixture by using a thermometer.
• Instruct them to take two reading each after ever 2 minute interval.
• Prepare a table of observances;
 Time taken Temperature 2 minutes 6 C 4 minutes 3 C
• Ask the students that what will happen to temperature if more ice is added into the beaker?

#### Sum up / Conclusion

• Temperature of body is measured by a device called Thermometer.
• There are two types of thermometer;
1. A laboratory thermometer.
2. A clinical thermometer.
• There are two common scales on the thermometers;
1. Celsius or Centigrade scale, (C)
2. Fahrenheit scale,(F)

Assessment

• Ask some purpose –fit questions like:
• A person is suffering from fever; now guess his/her body temperature on both the scales.
• Name the cities of Pakistan which are at very low and very high temperature.
• Will the temperature of your healthy father and younger brother be the same?
• Teacher is also required to involve the students in solving the problems given in the exercise end of unit/chapter.