Three Sounds of ‘ed’

Students’ Learning Outcomes

·         Recognize that ‘ed’ has three sounds i.e. /d/, /t/, /id/.

Information for Teachers

·         Verbs are action words or doing word as for e.g. write, eat, drink, play, dance, land, fly, run, etc.
·         Skills to develop are critical thinking and pronunciation.
·         When coaching English past tense pronunciation for regular simple past verbs, students have to first be skilled to add “-ed” to the end of the base form of the verb.
·         It’s problematic to identify how to pronounce ‘ed’ in English, as it’s pronounced in three diverse ways. It rest on on the letter before:
·         The three methods are:
o   1: ‘id’ (alike in painted ‘paint-id’)
o   2: ‘d’ (alike in ‘played’)
o   ‘t’ (alike in ‘hoped’)
·         The utmost significant thing to recollect is this:
·         If the verb has a ’d’ or a ’t’ sound before ‘ed’ you want to pronounce ‘id’. If it doesn’t, don’t pronounce an spare syllable.
·         Be cautious! It’s the sound, not the letter: ‘decide’ is pronounced ‘decide-id’ even yet it ends in ‘e’, as we don’t say the ‘e’, so the last sound is’d’.
·         So for example:
o   wanted (want-id)
o   ended (end-id)
o   decided (decide-id)
o   admitted (admit-id)
o   suggested (suggest-id)
o   recommended (recommend-id)
o   hated (hate-id)
o   intended (intend-id)
o   started (start-id)
·         For the other two sounds it doesn’t matter so much. Just make sure you don’t say ‘-id’! For example, ‘stopped’ is pronounced ‘stopt’ and not ever ‘stop-id’.
·         If the word before ‘ed’ finishes in the sounds ‘p’, ‘f’, ‘s’, ‘ch’, ‘sh’, ‘k’, then ‘ed’ is pronounced ‘t’: So:
o   ‘p’ stopped
o   ‘f’ laughed
o   ‘s’ promised
·         For all former words, ‘ed’ is pronounced ‘d’:
o   Allowed
o   Cried
o   Enjoyed
o   Cleaned
o   imagined
·         A second syllable with the “-ed” ending is only essential when the previous sound (not the previous letter) is a /t/ or /d.
·         For example: “wanted”, “decided”, “needed” or “invited.”
·         The last sound for the words “want” (want-id) and “invite”(invit-id) is /t/.
·         The last sound for the words “decide” and “need” is “d” these two sounds require that the added –ed ending be pronounced with an additional syllable.
·         The lesson plan focuses on /id/ sound and /t/ and /d/ sounds in two periods of study.
·         You must practice this lesson in another class lesson to reinforce the concept.
·         Additional activity can also be used as an assessment tool.
·        Voiced sound:
v  When we touch our throat and air vibrates when we pronounce a word it is voiced sound.
·        Un Voiced Sound:
v  When we touch our throat i.e. hold it with thumb and two fingers (middle and pointer) and air doesn’t vibrate while we pronounce a word it is un voiced sound.
·         Pronunciation of ‘ed’:
The pronunciation of words ending in ED depends on the concluding consonant (sound).
There are three ways to pronounce ED:
T     wanted
D    needed
Voiced sound=uses the vocal cords and they produce a vibration or humming sound in the throat.
P           helped
K          looked
SH       washed
CH      watched
GH     laughed
TH     breathed
SS      kissed
C       danced
X       fixed
L     called
N    cleaned
R    offered
G    damaged
V    loved
S    used
W   followed
Y    enjoyed
Z    amazed

Material / Resources

Chalk/marker, board, loose paper sheets

Worm up activity

·         Ask students to work with a partner on their left and write as many verbs as they can.
·         Let students share their ideas and appreciate the correct responses.
·         Let them work in pairs again to convert the action words/verbs given by them, in past tense form, with the focus on only that list of verbs that are changed into past form just by adding ‘ed’.
·         Write their responses on the board without categorizing them under these categories.
(Expected responses: decided, wanted, planted, and parted.)


Activity 1

·         Inform the students that the words ending in ‘ed’ have three ending sounds. /d/, /t/, /id/.
·         Reinforce the concept that /id/ sound is present where past tense ending is only used for verbs ending with a /t/ or /d/ sound, eg. ‘decide’ having /d/ sound ending and ‘want’ having again /t/ sound ending when changed in past tense form like ‘decide’ and ‘wanted’ have /id/ sound.
·         Reinforce the concept of voiced sound which takes /d/ sound and unvoiced takes /t/ sound.
·         Ask students to work in pairs and write the action words past tense form having /d/, /t/, /id/ sound.
·         Examples: of /id/ endings for Past Tense Verbs are decided, wanted, planted, and parted.
·         Examples: of /t/ endings for past tense verbs
o   “laugh” becomes “laughed” and is pronounced “laugh/t/” (one syllable)
o   “walk” becomes “walked” and is pronounced “walk/t/” (one syllable)
·         Examples: of /d/ endings for Past Tense Verbs:
o   “clean” becomes “cleaned” and is pronounced “clean/d/” (one Syllable)
o   “save” becomes “saved” and is pronounced “save/d/” (one syllable)
·         Record the above mentioned responses on the board under three headings i.e.
o   /id/ sound
o   /t/ sound
o   /d/ sound

Activity 2

·         Practice the words in activity one in groups of four members each.
·         All listen carefully to each other and help to improve the correct pronunciation.
·         Let students write the rule and verbs with their past forms in their notebooks.
      Verb                                                   Past                              Form
   /id/ sound        m                          /t/ sound                        /d/ sound

Activity 3

·         In pairs, think of two more past form of verbs having /id/,   /t/,     /d/ sound each and add it to the list given above.
·         Each team must help each other to rehearsal the sounds.

Activity 4

·         Read the following passage using the correct pronunciation for “ed” endings:
The bear jumped (T) out of its cage and ran into the crown. She must have realized (D) that this was her best chance to escape. The bear’s trainer looked (T) as though he were about to faint from the terror of it all; it seemed (D) like his worst nightmare come true. He scrambled (D) to his feet and started (ID) waving his hands and shouting to get the bears attention. She stopped (D) her wild rampage only for a moment at the sound of her trainer’s pleas. She quickly turned (D) back to the crowd and resumed (D) knocking people to the floor. The trainer suddenly had an idea. He reached (T) into his pocket and pulled (D) from it a large chocolate covered (D) treat- a known favorite of the bear. He shouted (ID) the bears name once more and she turned (D) to face him. She saw the treat and ran in full gallop towards him. He threw the treat into the cage and the bear followed (D). He locked (T) the door behind her and fell to the floor in relief. Apparently, the bear valued (D) food more than freedom.

Sum up / Conclusion

·         Students retell / discuss the rules for the three sounds of ‘ed’.
·         Students share their responses and examples in class.


·         Assess students’ understanding of the sounds through their correct responses during worm up and activity 1 and sum up.

Follow up

·         Do exercise from textbook.

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