Students’ Learning Outcomes
· Identify and recognize the function of pronouns and transitional devices.
Information for Teachers
· Transitional devices are words or phrases that unite one sentence or paragraph with alternative.
· The word “transition” means passing over. Hence transitional conductors are connectives (signs, words, phrases; occasionally entire sentences and paragraphs) that create possible a charming “passing over” from one impression to the next.
· A list of transition words as following:
Ø Therefore, however, moreover, lastly, next, also, furthermore, in addition to, similarly, likewise, consequently, henceforth, subsequently, by way of a result, in that way, otherwise, subsequently, thus, so then, wherefore, generally, usually, for the most part of, as a rule, ordinarily, regularly, for instance, particularly. Especially, such as, including, specifically, on behalf of example, as an example, in this instance, beyond all, singularly, coupled with, compared to, in comparison to, composed with, too, in short-lived, , in deduction, in the meantime, afterward, former, in instant, to review, lastly, earlier, later, by the way, incidentally, accidently, here, nearby, over there, contrary, underneath, elsewhere, in the remoteness, to the left, to the right,
· A pronoun is a part of a speech.
· A pronoun is a word that receipts the place of one or more nouns.
· Transitional devices bring more sense in a paragraph by linking the idea in one sentence with that in the next sentence and indicate relationship between ideas.
· Transitional devices can be pronouns, transitional words and phrases.
· In this lesson the following common transitional devices will be used and practiced:
Ø And, but.
Material / Resources
Colored, chalk/marker, board, chart paper, textbook
Worm up activity
· Brainstorm the students’ knowledge of pronouns.
· Write down the pronouns suggested by the students on the board.
(E.g. she, it, they, them, we, us)
· Ask the students, ‘Why do we use pronouns?’
(Expected response: to make sentences interesting to continue the idea about a subject or object, to remove repetition of words that make sentences boring).
· Encourage the students to give answers in complete sentences.
· Write or paste each pair of sentences on the board.
(Example: 1. the students are reading a story. It is about a giant and the beans).
2. My friend and I went to the market. We bought some chocolates.
3. Amara and Sara like dolls. They play with them daily.
4. Ahmad plays hockey. It is his favorite game.
· Call a few students one by one to the board.
· Ask the students to ‘underline or circle’ the pronoun in the second sentence.
· Circle the word from the first sentence that the pronoun replaces.
· Write the words ‘and’ and ‘but’ on the board.
· Write two sentences on the board: I like to eat bananas. I like to eat apples.
· Ask the students, “I want to join the two sentences, which word should I use: ‘and’ or ‘but’?”
· Students take turns to give correct answer. (‘and’ is the correct answer) e.g. I like to eat bananas and apples.
· Tell the students that ‘and’ is used when we want to add some information.
· Repeat the same steps for ‘but’.
· Write a pair of sentences.
Ø Chocolate is bad for you, but it is very tasty.
· Here ‘but’ is giving a comparison between the chocolate being bad for you and also being tasty. (Comparison or contrast).
· ‘But’ is used when we want to say something opposite to the first sentence/idea.
· Make two teams of students ‘Tom’ and ‘Jerry’.
· Write a few sentences on the board.
· Take the sentences from the textbook.
· Sentences must be joined with ‘and’, ‘but’, ‘or’, ‘then’. (You can also use sentences from activity 4 and then write them in notebook after this activity.
· Give them flash cards of and, but, or, then.
· Shuffle the cards and place them upside down in front of each group.
· Ask a student from ‘Tom’ tem to read the sentence.
· Teams take turns to pick a connective card.
· Teams will place it where it connects the two parts of the sentences to make sense.
· Both the teams have to agree that the sentence works.
· Write the following sentences on the board.
· Ask the students to write this activity in their notebooks.
· Fill in the blanks with suitable words from the brackets.
a) Salma _____Asia are cooking food. (and, but)
b) Ahmad is not only good at studies,_____(and, but) ____(I, he) also plays cricket well.
c) I like apples _____ I don’t like oranges. (and, but)
d) Maryam stood first in class, _____got a trophy. (but, and)
e) ______(but, then) we started our journey.
Some up / conclusion
· Ask the students to correct their errors in pairs after completing the written work.
· Assess the students’ understanding through their responses and written work. Take a test in the following week.
· Ask the students to make sentences with any five pronouns used in class today.