Types of Environment

Lesson Plan of Types of Environment

General Science Grade IV

Students’ Learning Outcomes

·         Differentiate between different types of environments.
·         Explain the characteristics of animals and plants which enable them to survive in a particular environment.

Information for Teachers

·         There are three types of environments:


n  Land (terrestrial) environment.
n  Water (aquatic) environment.
n  Air environment.
·         Mountains, deserts, forests and plain areas are the examples of land (terrestrial) environment.
·         Rivers, lakes, ponds and seas are the examples of water (aquatic) environment.
·         The place where birds and insects fly is an example of air environment.
·         Land animals (particularly desert animals) have thick skin to stop the loss of water from their body.
·         Land animals have strong legs for movement.
·         In aquatic environment, fishes have gills for respiration, fins and boat-like body swimming.
·         Some animals (birds, insects) fly with the help of their wings.
·         Plants have roots to absorb water and for holding the plant body in soil.
·         Plants have pores in their leaves for exchange of gases.
·         Water plants have elastic body while air sacs for floating. These characteristics prevent them from breaking due to water currents.

Material / Resources

Pictures / charts of terrestrial, aquatic and air habitats, textbook

Worm up Activity

Ask students:
·         What is the environment of our class? Land, Water or Air.
·         In which type of environment do fishes live? Land, Water or Air?
·         Show the picture / chart of a plant and an animal to students and ask:
§  Which part of the plant helps in absorbing water?
§  –Which part of the body does an animal use for movement?
·          Ask students to share with the class what they know about birds.


Activity 1

·         Show pictures 9cut from books/ newspaper / magazines / stickers) of different animals and plants that live in following areas to students. By using these pictures explain;
n   Mountainous animals and plants
n  Desert animals and plants
n  Plain area animals and plants
n  Forest animals and plants
·         Ask students to observe and tell how these animals and plants live on land.
·         Explain the characteristics of animals and plants for land environment (the role of legs and skin in animals while the role of roots and leaves in plants may be taught)


Activity 2

·         Show pictures (cut outs from books / magazines / newspaper/ stickers) of aquatic animals and plants. By using these pictures explain the following:
n  Gills for respiration
n  Fins for swimming


·         Ask students to observe and tell how these animals live in water.
·         Explain the characteristics of animals and plants suitable for aquatic environment (the characteristics of fins, gills and boat-shaped body in fishes while the characteristic of leaves, roots and stems in aquatic plants may be taught)

Activity 3

·         Show pictures (cut outs from books / magazines / newspaper/ stickers)of the animals (insects, birds and bat that fly in air)
·         Ask students to observe how birds fly in the air.
·         Discuss its characteristics in such animals that help them in flying. (The characteristics of wings, light body weight and strong flight muscles may be taught).

Activity 4

·         Draw the following table on board and fill it by interactive questioning and answering with the students.
Parts of body
                                   Animals in:
Land Environment
Air Environment
Water Environment
For Movement
For Respiration

Sum up / Conclusion

·         There are three types of environments;
n  Land (terrestrial) environment
n  Water (aquatic) environment
n  Air environment
·         Organisms have characteristics that enable them to live in a particular environment.
·         Terrestrial animals have thick skin for the prevention of water loss; strong legs for movement and lungs for respiration.
·         Aquatic animals have fins and tail for movement while gills for respiration.
·         Animals that fly in air have hollow bones and wings that help in flight.


·         Ask following questions from students:
n  Name any four animals that live in water.
n  Name any four plants that live on land.
n  Do you know any animal that can live both in water and land?
n  How do insects and birds fly?
n  A fish can live in water but a cat can’t why?

Follow up


·         Divide students into groups of 4-5 individuals and assign them following tasks;
n  Search magazines / newspaper / books for pictures of animals from different environment (plain, mountainous, deserts, aquatic areas).
n  Cut and paste the pictures on the top of a plain leaving space underneath for writing. There should be one picture per paper.
n  Identify the characteristics of animals and write them below the picture. Also write why they believe that characteristic is useful.
n  Imagine the animal in the new environment and write how the characteristic will be helpful or harmful in the new area.
·         Each group will assemble the information in the following format.


Characteristics of animals:
How these characteristics are helpful to animals?
If the animal is in different environment, how the characteristics will be helpful or harmful?


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