Lesson Plan of Use of Definite and Indefinite Articles
Students’ Learning Outcomes
· Recall and apply the rules for the use of and an.
· Choose between a or an before words that start with mute /silent consonant letters.
· Identify and use the definite article ‘the’.
· Differentiate between use of definite and indefinite articles.
Information for Teachers
· Basically, an article is an adjective. Like adjectives, articles modify nouns. English has two articles: The and a/an.The is used to refer to specific or particular nouns; a/an is used to modify non-specific or non-particular nouns. We call the definite article and a/an the indefinite article.
o the = definite article
o a/an = indefinite article
· There are three articles in English Language: a, an, and the.
· The definite articles (the) are used with singular and plural, countable and uncountable nouns when both the speaker and the listener know the thing or idea already.
o The car over there is fast.
o The teacher is very good, isn’t he?
· The first time you speak of something use a or an, the next time you repeat that object use ‘the’.
o I live in a house. The house is quite old and has four bedrooms.
o I ate in a Chines restaurant. The restaurant was very good.
· The definite article is used:-
a) Before seas, rivers, hotels, theaters/cinemas, museums and newspaper, the pacific, the Sindh, the Lahore museum, the news, the Pearl Continental, the Grand theater
b) If there is only one.
o The sun, the moon, the world, the president.
c) With superlative adjectives:
o He is the richest man in the world.
o Farooq is the oldest in the class.
· Remember, using a or an depends on the sound that begins the next word. So…
o a + singular noun beginning with a consonant: a boy; a car; a bike; a zoo; a dog
o an + singular noun beginning with a vowel: an elephant; an egg; an apple; an idiot; an orphan
o a + singular noun beginning with a consonant sound: a user (sounds like ‘yoo-zer,’ i.e. begins with a consonant ‘y’ sound, so ‘a’ is used); a university; a unicycle
o an + nouns starting with silent “h”: an hour
o a + nouns starting with a pronounced “h”: a horse
· Time division is tentative and can change as per need of the activity.
Material / Resources
Chalk/marker, board, textbook
Worm up activity
· Start the lesson by asking students about the definite article ‘the’. Ask them when definite article is used. Write a few examples on the board.
· Reinforce the previously taught rules of using ‘the’ with examples.
· Write ‘the sun’, ‘the world’, ‘the moon’, on the board. Teach students that ‘the’ is also used when we talk about objects which are only one.
· Write ‘the president of Pakistan’ on the board.
· Teach students that because Pakistan has only one president and one prime minister, ‘the’ is used before them.
· Ask students to give examples of presidents of other countries e.g. ‘the president of USA etc.
· Teach the use of ‘the’ with superlatives adjectives only if students have been taught superlative adjectives previously.
· Write 5-7 sentences on the board. Like follow:
v Read the sentences and underline the correct article.
1. What is a/the name of this street? (the)
2. The/A sun is shining. (the)
3. Paris is a/the capital of France. (the)
4. Where is Ali? He, ‘he is in the/a bathroom’. (the)
5. Who is a/the president of Pakistan? (the)
6. We are going to a/the Lahore museum’. (the)
7. I read the/ a Jung every Sunday. (the)
· Tell the students that they have to select ‘a’ or ‘the’.
· Tell the students that they have to keep in mind the rules for using ‘a’ and ‘the’.
· Repeat the instructions if necessary.
· Provide necessary support to the students while they are doing their work.
· Write on the board two sentences like as:
1. I bought ____ cap and ___ shirt at ____ shop. ____ Shirt isn’t of my size. I will change it tomorrow.
2. Where are ____ children? ‘They are in _____ garden’.
3. Where are my shoes? ‘On ____ floor, in ___ kitchen?
4. I went to ______ hotel last night.
5. What is ____ name of _____ hotel we went to last night?
1. A, a, a, the 2. The, the 3. The, the 4. A 5. The, the
· Ask one student to read aloud the sentence. Ask from the students what articles should be used in the blanks.
· Help the students by explaining the rules to them.
· Choose students to come to the board and fill in the blanks.
· Do all the sentences one by one on the board. Try to involve maximum students.
Sum up / Conclusion
· Quickly review the lesson by asking the students questions:
o What are ‘a’ and ‘an’ called?
o What is ‘the’ called?
o What are the rules for using ‘the’? etc.
· Assess students’ ability to recall the rules for the use of articles “the” through their correct responses during worm up activity.
· Assess students’ ability to choose between a or the through the correct choices made in the activity1 and 2.
· Assess students’ ability to use the definite article through the follow up activity.
· Teacher is required to involve the student in solving the problems given in the exercise at the end of unit/chapter.
· Ask the student to make 5 sentences using ‘the’.
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