Lesson Plan of Viruses, Bacteria and Fungi
General Science Grade V
Students’ Learning Outcomes
· Identify the main group of microorganisms in daily life.
· Describe the advantages of microorganisms
Information for Teachers
· The organisms which can’t be seen with our naked eyes (without using microscope) are called microorganisms.
· All viruses and bacteria are microorganisms.
· Some fungi are too small, these are also included in microorganisms.
· Most of the fungi are too big to be seen without microscope. Such fungi are not included in microorganisms.
· Bacteria are helpful in the production of many foods e. g. yogurt, cheese etc.
· Fungi (yeasts) are used in baking (e. g.: bread, cake etc.)
· Virus is the smallest of all microorganisms.
Material / Resources
Pictures of microscope, bacteria, virus and fungi
Worm up Activity
· Ask students to recall previous knowledge regarding “Dental Hygiene” from grade 1V and answer the following questions:
—-Why should we keep our teeth clean?
—-Can we see germs with our naked eyes?
—-Which instrument is mostly used to see microorganisms?
· Show pictures / diagrams of viruses, bacteria and fungi from textbook to students. Ask them to observe these pictures carefully and guess which organisms are these.
· Draw following line work on board and tell that these are so small organisms that can’t be seen with our naked eyes. Such organisms are called microorganisms.
· Now explain the meaning of microorganisms to the student i. e. “micro” means “small” and
“scope” means “to see”. Microorganisms can be seen only under the microscope.
· Recall previous knowledge regarding the presence of germs9bacteria) on different things and skin.
· Now show microscope or picture of microscope to the students.
· Talk on the definition of bacteria, virus and fungi. During this, make simple drawing of a bacterium, a virus and (yeast) on board as well.
· Explain the advantages of bacteria and fungi in daily life.
· Use questioning answering and concept maps to teach this part of lesson.
· Ask the students the use of bacteria and fungi in preparation of yogurt, cheese and bread.
· Ask the students: Have you ever seen the process of yogurt making? Do you know this process?
· If possible, demonstrate the process of yogurt making in class. Otherwise explain this process with the help of students.
· Tell the students:
—-We mix one spoon of yogurt (which contains yogurt making bacteria) in warm milk.
—–After this, we place this milk at warm place for 3-4 hours, so that bacteria increase their
——Increasing bacteria produce acids in milk, due to these acids, the milk condenses and
converts into yogurt.
· Ask students to draw diagram to explain this process.
· Explain the role of bacteria and fungi in the decomposition of dead organic matters. Conduct question answering session so that students can understand the importance of decomposition.
—-What happen to organisms after their death? (Expected response: they vanish after
—-What happens with the leaves that have fallen from trees? (Expected response:
they get mix in the soil.
· Tell students that dead bodies of animals and plants are broken into simpler compounds. This work is done by bacteria and fungi. If the process of decomposition of matters is stopped what could happen? (Expected response: They will remain as such).
· Explain that if there is no decomposition, there would be piles of dead bodies and garbage on each and every side of the Earth. Soon, there will be no place for living and growing crops.
· Explain that simpler matters formed after decomposition of dead bodies increase the fertility of soil.
Sum up / Conclusion
· Organisms which can’t be seen with naked eyes are called microorganisms.
· All bacteria, all viruses and some fungi are examples of microorganisms.
· Bacteria are helpful in the production of many foods, e. g. yogurt and cheese.
· Fungi (yeasts) are used in baking (e. g. cake, bread, Naan etc.)
· Many bacteria and fungi decompose dead organisms into simpler substances.
· Virus is the smallest of all microorganisms.
· Ask the following questions from students:
—-All bacteria and viruses are microorganisms but all fungi are not, why?
—–Name the food items, in which microorganisms are used for their processing.
—-If all decomposers (bacteria and fungi) die, what will happen?
· Draw this table on the board and ask the students to identify the microorganism and to copy it in their notebooks and complete it.
Name of Microorganism: —————- ————————– ——————————–
Place where it is found: —————- ———————— —————————–
Advantages: —————- ———————— —————————–
· Involve the students in solving the questions given at the end of chapter / unit in textbook.
· Ask the students to prepare the fermented flour dough (chapatti/ Naan) with the help of their parents and write its method along with results in copy.
· Ask the students to write if there is any link of microorganisms with the fermented flour dough making.