Digraph and Trigraph


Lesson Plan of Digraph and Trigraph

        Students’ Learning Outcomes

  1. ·                                      Identify and differentiate between vowel letters and sounds.
  2. ·                                        Pronounce long and short vowel sounds in minimal pairs.

                      Information for Teachers

  1. ·         (This plan will be conducted in two lessons: Lesson one for vowels and short vowels, lesson 2 for long vowels and minimal pairs).
  2. ·         There are five vowels in English. They are a, e, i, o, u. letter ‘a’ is pronounced as in apple, ‘e’ is pronounced as in egg, ‘I’ as in ink, ‘o’ as in orange and ‘u’ as in umbrella.

                       Short and Long Vowel sounds

               There are five short vowel sounds

                                Sound – example

                                      Short ‘a’ – and, as      

                                     Short ‘e’ – pen, hen

                                     Short ‘I’ – it, in

                                    Short ‘o’ – top, hop

                                  Short ‘u’ – under, cup

                               Six long vowel sound

                               Sound – Example

                           Long ‘a’ – make, take

                           Long ‘e’ – beet, feel

                          Long ‘I’ – tie, lie

                         Long ‘o’ – coat, toe

                        Long ‘u’ – rule, blue

  1. ·         Minimal pairs : minimal pairs are pairs of words or phrases that differ only in one sound in a word and have different meaning. Practicing minimal pairs can help recognize the differences in pronunciation between one word and another.
  2. ·         Minimal pairs are for vowels and consonants both. In this lesson only vowel will be focused
  3. ·         While teaching the lesson, the teacher should also consult the textbook where applicable.

                                        Material / Resources

Chalk, writing board, big cut – outs of the long and short vowel sounds made of card paper (sample sounds is attached with the plan you must not cut this out from here, but make your own based on the sample practice exercise chart of short vowel sounds (require for activity, make this chart so that model reading and chanting can be done).

                    Worm up Activity

  1. ·         Introduce the vowels: write vowels a, e, I, o, u on the wring board.
  2. ·         Inform students that there are five vowels in English language with which we add “an” if the word starts with vowel letter or sound.
  3. ·         Read the sound of letter like this : letter ‘a’ is pronounced as in ‘apple’ ‘e’ is pronounced as in egg, ‘I’ as in ink, ‘o’ as in orange and ‘u’ as in umbrella

  Activity 1

  1. ·         Draw the following table on the board.
Short a
Short e
Short i
Short o
Short u
  1. ·         Now pronounce these vowels and ask students to tell some words that start with these vowels.
  2.      For example, ‘a’  in apple.
  3. ·         Write ‘apple’ in ‘a’ column and ask them to add more words.
  4. ·         Repeat this activity with rest of the vowels and keep pronouncing the words for their better understanding.
  5. ·         Ask them to add more short vowel sound words in the table.
  6. ·         Students will make this table in their notebooks.
  7. ·         Inform students that these are words which start with short vowel sounds. Students must make this table in their notebooks.

 Activity 2

  1. ·         Display the short vowel exercise chart on the board.
  2. ·         Read the words to the students.
  3. ·         Make students practice to pronounce words by chanting / reading aloud.
           Short vowel sounds

    A is for ambulance, ant, apricot, actor.

  1.             A as in apple, not ay
  2.             E is for exciting endings and extra eggs for everyone.
  3.             E as in egg, not ee
  4.             I is for itchy insects inside and inkpot
  5.             I as in ink, not eye
  6.          O is for the old octopus eating an orange
  7.          O as in ox, not oh
  8.          U is for understanding unusual  umbrella
  9.          U as in up, not you

   Activity 3

    Long Vowel Sounds
  1. ·         Write the words cake, paper, feet, tie, coat, rule, few, on the writing board.
  2. ·         Pronounce each word and tell the vowel sound in each of the words (‘a’ in cake and paper, ‘ee’ in feet, ‘I’ in tie, ‘o’ in coat, ‘u’ in rule and few)
Draw the following chart on writing board:
   Long ‘a’
   Long ‘e’
   Long ‘I’
      Long ‘o’
         Long ‘u’
       (sound of ‘ew’ is ‘u’)
  1. ·         Ask them to tell words for each long vowel sound.
  2. ·         Tell them briefly when the vowel sound is long, long –e- in beet, feet, long –i- in tie, long –o- in coat, toe, long –u- (yoo) in rule, long –oo- in few, blue then it is called long vowel sound.
  3. ·         Repeat the long vowel sound words aloud at least five minutes.
  4. ·         Correct for pronunciation.
  5. ·         Ask all the students to make the table of words in their notebooks.

Activity 4

Long Vowel Sounds
  1. ·         Display the long vowel exercise chart on the board.
  2. ·         Read out the sound to the students.
  3. ·         Students practice the pronunciation of the words sounds by chanting / reading aloud using this exercise.
Long Vowel Sounds:

Practice exercise

  1.             A is for the cake to bake in the oven near the lake.
  2.             A as in ay
  3.             E is for need to read the final seed
  4.            E as in ee
  5.            I is fir the lie that makes you cry
  6.            I as in eye
  7.           O is for the coat made of skin of goat
  8.           O as in oh
  9.           U is for the few rules that make you blue
  10.          U as in yu

Activity 5

Minimal pairs
  1. ·         Reproduce the minimal pairs 9activity sheet attached) in chorus by first giving the example and then having students repeat together.
  2. ·         In class you can do half of these words. Students must practice these minimal pairs at home.
  3. ·         Dictation and pronunciation tests can be taken in the following week.
  4. ·         Students must paste this activity sheet in their notebooks or copy it in the notebooks.
  1. ·         Write a few long vowel and short vowel words on the board.
  2. ·         Ask different students to pronounce these words and add more words in these words.
  3. ·         Involve the students in solving the problems given in the exercise at the end of unit/chapter.
                            Follow up
·         Continue to recite the short vowel sound and long vowel sound poems with the students at regular intervals.
·         Write one short and one long vowel sound word for ‘a’, ‘e’, ‘I’, ‘o’, ‘u’ and also add ‘a; or ‘an’ to it.
·         Memorise the activity sheet on minimal pairs.
Long Vowel Sounds:                                 
Short Vowel Sounds
A cake                                                                 an apple
A meeting                                                           an egg
A tie                                                                     an inkpot
A coat                                                                  an orange
A blue pen                                                          an umbrella

                              Activity Sheet — Minimal Pairs

Lit – light
Read – red
Sing – sang
Bed – bad
Saw – sought
Boot – boat
Soot – suite
(as sweet)
But – boot
Why – way
 Know – now
Let -lit
Leak – lick
Look – luck
Sock – suck
Vest – vast
Cod – card
Dug – dog
Thirst – first
Fair – fear
Pay – bay
Read – lead
Need – knead
Zoo – sue
Near – never
Fur – fear
Bat – bet
Noon – none

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