Lesson Planning of Common Disorders of some Parts of Human Body
Subject General Science
Students` learning outcomes
- Identify common disorders of various parts of body and their causes.
- Suggest ways to keep parts of their body, healthy.
Information for Teachers
- When someone takes sweets, chocolate, candies or drinks, the sugar present in these foods sticks to his teeth and if mouth isn`t washed, due to sweet surface of teeth germs grow there.
- We should brush after eating or at least twice a day so that germs should not grow there.
- We should select a toothbrush that has soft bristles and has appropriate size for our mouth.
- Eating to much chocolates and sweets is harmful for our stomach, too.
- Spicy foods damage the inner walls of our stomach. Its severe condition leads to ulcer.
- Foods taken from hawkers are not prepared by using hygienic principles, so cause food poisoning, vomiting and stomach ache.
- When we get cut on skin and we don`t take care of it, infection may develop there. We can also have skin rashes in summers or due to infection. The best way to take care of our skin is to keep it clean.
- During teaching, also consult the textbook as and where required.
Material / Resources
Writing board, chalk / marker, duster, chart paper, pictures related to topic, bandage, prickly heat powder, lotion and hand mirrors, and textbook
- Ask the students if they have ever had tooth ache, stomach ache or skin rashes.
- Ask them to describe what they felt at the time of pain and what they did to get better?
- Ask students to share their experiences and then introduce today`s topic.
- Give hand mirrors to students (you can also ask students a day before to bring small mirrors from home)
Ask the students to observe their own teeth by using the mirror.
- Ask the following questions to the students:
- What colour your teeth have?
- Can you see any brown or dark spots on your teeth?
- What do you think what it is?
- Explain about the black or dark areas that it is the spot where germs have damaged the teeth.
- Ask them do you know how germs get in their mouth?
- After their responses tell them that the leftover food in mouths starts these problems.
- Ask how to fix this problem? (Expected answer would be as; by brushing our teeth and keeping them clean)
- Show some pictures (like the ones shown here) to the students or tell them a story:
Sara visited the dentist. Her tooth was hurting. What might have happened to her tooth? (Expected response; Sara has eaten too much sweets and has not brushed the teeth properly).
- Inform the students that this is tooth decay.
- Explain the tooth decay by simple drawing.
- Inform the students that teeth can be kept healthy if we brush regularly.
- Ask the students how many times do they brush their teeth?
- Demonstrate the correct way of brushing the teeth as shown in the diagram.
- Ask the students if anybody has had stomach ache?
- Call that student to come in the front of class and explain his / her condition when he / she had stomach ache.
- Ask the students if they know the causes of stomach ache?
- Inform the students that use of too much food and unhygienic food can disturb their stomach.
- Ask how can we avoid getting a stomach ache? (Expected response; by taking hygienic and proper food)
- Ask the students that who likes to eat too much spicy food. (Expected response will be observed by their raised hands).
- Inform them that too much spicy food causes ulcer, inform students about ulcer.
- Show some pictures of the given materials to the students or show the original ones and ask them why they are used?
- After getting students` response inform them that:
- Bandage is used when we get cut on the skin.
- Prickly heat powder is used in summers for heat rashes.
- During winters our skin gets dry. We need to moisten it by applying any lotion or cream. Prolonged dry skin can damage by appearing cracks and it often results in painful red skin.
- Too much exposure to the sun causes skin to burn.
Sum up / Conclusion
- Brushing the teeth twice a day, using hygienic food, avoiding spicy food, washing hands and keeping our skin clean keep us healthy.
- Arrange some pictures on a chart (if available from newspapers) as shown in diagram or otherwise write the names of the bad habits, their results and prevention as mentioned in the columns.
- Paste the chart paper on the wall or board.
- Ask the students to demonstrate their learning by linking the columns.
- Students will be able to decide about the healthy and unhealthy daily activities through charts, like the following.
- Involve the students in solving the questions given at the end of chapter / unit in textbook.
- Divide students in groups of 4-5. Explain that the protective layer on teeth i.e. enamel is made of the same stuff (calcium) as egg shell.
- Instruct each group like following:
- Place an egg in a jar. Pour vinegar (enough to cover the egg) in jar.
- Cap the jars and label the date on the lid. Let it as for several days. Observe changes every day.
- After several days, observe holes in egg shell.
- Explain that the holes are formed where the acid dissolves the calcium. Enamel on outside of teeth is also made of calcium.
- Ask the students if someone is ill in their homes, collect the following data from him / her.