Lesson Planning of Digraphs and Trigraphs


Lesson Planning of Digraphs, Trigraphs and Consonant Clusters

Subject English

Grade 2nd

Students` Learning Outcomes

  • Articulate, identify and differentiate between the sounds of individual letters, digraphs and trigraphs in initial and final positions in a word.
  • Identify, recognize and articulate more sight words.
  • Pronounce common consonant digraphs in initial and final position.
  • Identify and pronounce with reasonable ‘accuracy’ common two-consonant clusters in initial positions.
  • Pronounce familiar two / three syllable words and common irregular sight words.

Information for Teachers

  • This lesson plan deals with different SLOs related to alphabet clusters.
  • Activities 1 and 2 will be repeated for different digraphs and trigraphs.
  • You may decide how much time to spend at each step, depending on your students` progress.

Digraphs, Trigraphs and Consonant Clusters

  • Digraph: Two consonants that are spelled together, and make a brand new, single sound.
  • Trigraphs: Three consonants that are spelled together, and make a brand new, single sound.
  • Consonants Clusters: Two or more than 2 consonants are blended together with each sound heard.
  • While teaching the lesson, the teacher should also consult with textbook where and when applicable.

Duration / Number of periods

6 periods

Additional 1-2 period for each new digraph being done

Material / Resources

Writing board, chalk/marker, duster, Two jars of poster paints: Red and white, charts with different activities, flashcards, textbook, other print sources, whenever possible, bring actual products to class instead of showing flashcards


  • Give a short colour-mixing demonstration to the class. Tell them that just like you mix red and white to make pink, you can put together two alphabets and create a third sound!
  • Ask them to repeat: as; Red and white make? (They reply ‘pink’)
  • Then say ‘c’ and ‘h’ make the ‘ch’ sound
  • Ask them to repeat the last point.


Activity 1

  • Introduce a digraph, as; ‘ch’

  • Ask them to brainstorm: as; what words begin with the ‘ch’ sound. If they feel stuck, give them hints, like what foods start with ‘ch’ (chocolate, chips, cheese), or which country starts with ‘ch’ (China)
  • Make / use cutouts of pictures, flashcards of objects whose names start with these blends. Leaves the first two letters of the name and write the rest. Ask students to write these letters.

–air – ip

For example:











  • Or you can make simple drawings on the board and write the words with blanks next to the drawing. The students can copy the word and fill in the blanks (they don`t have to copy the drawings unless they want to copy one or two of them)
  • Or give picture flashcards to one group of students and word flashcards to the other group of students. One member from one group will read the name and the member in the other group having the picture will come out with the picture and say the name aloud. Then all the students will say the name aloud.
  • Tell the students that the two successive letters in the word phone represent a single sound e.g. ‘ph’ for the sound /f/.
  • Tell the students to say and read the given words carefully recognizing that ‘sh’, ‘ch’ and ‘ph’ represent one sound, just like red and white paint make pink when mixed together.
  • Prepare a worksheet having names of objects in one column and pictures in the other column. The name should not be directly in front of the object, the two lists should be jumbled up. Ask the students to say the name of the picture aloud and join the picture with the word.


  • Ask students to use these words in sentences. If they don`t respond, facilitate them by asking a guiding question, such as ‘can you tell me about a photo that you saw and liked?
  • Write these words in their notebooks. Ask students to trace / write these words.
  • Practice with more such words occurring in the textbook using above activity.
  • Make sentences with such words for more practice.

Activity 2

  • Repeat this reading and writing activities as the students` vocabulary increases (stay within the recommendation word list / graded vocabulary for this level)

Activity 3

  • Repeat activity 1 and activity 2 for other digraphs and for trigraphs in initial and final position.
  • Each time you introduce a new word blend, revise all the ones done previously.
  • Digraphs in final position in a word.
  • Give list of words having digraphs at final position. For example:











  • Trigraphs in final position; give list of words having trigraphs at final position, as;









Activity 4

  • Give list of words with and without digraphs and trigraphs.
  • Sample list as; cat, rat, chat, batch, patch, dash, cash, watch, car, high, sheep, peep, chair, photograph, etc.
  • Divide the class in groups or 2 teams. Ask each group /team to take one word, to utter and differentiate between the sounds of individual letter, digraphs and trigraphs in initial or final positions in that particular word.
  • Give as much practice and repetition as you feel is required by your students to master this skill.

Activity 5

  • Give list of sight word. The list may be: as;










  • Tell the students that some words are immediately recognized as a whole.
  • Make flashcards of common sight words.


  • Write two words on the board. Ask the students to repeat these words after you a couple of times. As you do so, point to the word on the board and show the flashcard that has the saw sound.
  • When the students have had enough practice, call each student to the board. Give the two flashcards and ask him /her to match each word with the one written on the board. Ask him/her to retry if he is unable to do so.
  • Ask students to use the word in a sentence. If they feel stuck, ask them a question that would help them get started, as; put a brightly coloured ball (or doll or any other toy) in the door and as, ‘What is that?’ image ball
  • Write these words in their notebooks. Ask students to trace / write these words.
  • Practice with more sight words occurring in the textbook using above activity. Make sentences with the sight words for more practice.

Activity 6

  • Note: The word consonant clusters is for the teacher to understand and isn`t to be told to the students.
  • Brainstorm: Ask students to think of words that start with the ‘bl’ sound. Give them clues if they feel stuck, as; say to them ‘Can you think of any colours that start with ‘bl’?’ (Blue, Black)
  • Give list of words having two-consonant clusters in initial positions. The list may be, as;
  • Before giving any list, always ask students if they know words starting with the letter or letter cluster.











  • Tell the students that some series of consonants are pronounced together, e.g. the sound /st/ in stamp, ‘bl’ in blank and ‘st’ in stem / step, stick.
  • Ensure not to pronounce these clusters as /bal/, /sut/, making the words sound as but, ank, sutem (instead of stem)


Conclusion / Sum up

  • Divide students in two teams and ask them to quiz each other. You should have prepared a list of questions too, in case students need help in what they should ask.


  • Ask students to utter words starting/ending with a particular digraph / trigraphs. Notice how promptly they are able to utter words for each di/trigraphs. This will help you decide how much more practice they require.
  • Ask students to tell the digraph/trigraphs by hearing its sound. Such as if you say ‘chair’ they should be able to tell that it starts with ‘ch’. Repeat with other digraphs/trigraphs.
  • The assessment is based on activities. Use formative assessment to assess the students` performance.
  • Teacher is also required to involve the students in solving the problems given in the exercise at end of unit/chapter.

Follow up

  • Continue to point out words with consonants clusters while teaching other subjects, in the playground or during conversation with the students(such as when you are talking about food, and someone mentions ‘ice-cream’, the teacher may point out that ‘cream’ has ‘cr’ at the beginning)s
  • Ask the students to revise the spellings of words on the list.
  • Give additional lists of words for student’s t revise the spelling.
  • Go over the world spellings in class before giving them for homework. Make students go over the students. Get them in the habit of figuring out the spellings following the sounds, before they memorize the spellings.

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