Lesson Planning of Digraphs /Trigraphs


Lesson Planning of Digraphs, Trigraphs and Their Positions

Subject English

Grade V

Students` Learning Outcomes

  • Articulate words containing digraphs, trigraphs and silent letters.

Information for Teachers

  • Graph is a single letter that makes a single sound.
  • Digraphs have two letters that make one sound.
  • In digraphs, consonants or vowels and consonants join together to form a blend, which makes a single sound (phoneme), as; ‘p’ and ‘h’ combine to form ‘ph’, which make the /f/ sound (consonant digraph), ‘o’ and ‘u’ combine to form loud (vowel digraph), and ‘a’ and ‘w’ combine to form ‘saw’ (vowel-consonant blend).

Digraphs /Trigraphs

  • Digraphs can be used at the beginning (initial), middle or end (final) of a word.
  • Some common vowel digraphs are, as; (‘oa’, ‘ow’, ‘ou’, ‘au’, ‘ee’. ‘ea’, ‘oo’, ‘ie’, ‘ue’, ‘ai’, ‘oi’, ‘oy’, ‘ay’, ‘ew’)(last three have consonants but sound as vowels).
  • Trigraphs are a ‘phoneme’ which consists of three letters, as; ‘tch’ in catch, scratch, hatch, and match. ‘igh’ in night, sight, height, fight,  and right.
  • You must practice words with digraphs and trigraphs through the year in different lessons, whenever new words are taught.

Digraphs /Trigraphs

  • A list of words containing digraph is given at the end of the plan. It should be used throughout the year. This will help to improve vocabulary and pronunciation.
  • In this lesson digraphs and trigraphs are focused.

Material / Resources

Writing board, chalk/marker, textbook, flash cards of graphs (letter that makes one sound), chart or poster of words with digraphs in the initial, middle, and final position(you can easily draw these pictures on a chart or make separate flashcards. Don`t cut these out. You can even bring some of these objects in class), or use the objects that are present in class e.g. three chairs or stools.


  • Write the following words on the board, as; check, chunk, phone, shine, thin, crunch, fish, cloth, etc.
  • Ask students to notice the digraphs at initials and ending positions and pronounce them.


Activity 1

  • Prepare the flash cards of the following digraphs: ‘ee’, ‘ch’, ‘sh’, ‘th’, ‘ph, and ‘oo’.
  • Divide the students into small groups of four members each.
  • Give each group a flash card of one digraph. Repeat the digraph if there are more groups.
  • Ask them to write examples of vowel digraphs in middle or final positions in their notebooks. (Possible responses are: as; chips, chick, shop, share, that, phone, fish, sleep, father, fashion. Broom)
  • When students will write their words, ask the members of each group to pronounce their words in turns for the whole class loudly.
  • Correct the pronunciation and spellings of the words if it is required.



Activity 2

  • Display prepared flash cards of the digraphs on the board, as; chain, much, etc.
  • Ask students to pronounce these words correctly and also ask them to


Activity 3

  • Prepare flash cards of different trigraphs, as; sight, height, catch, hatch, might, sight, fight, light, match, batch, butcher, slight.
  • Students will work in groups and they will recognize trigraphs in the initial, middle and final positions.
  • They will share their words with the whole class.
  • Check their pronunciation while reading each word.
  • Make sure that the students are familiar with the words you choose. Tell the meaning of the difficult words if it is required.


Sum up/ Conclusion
  • Write the following digraph and trigraphs words on the board, as; (splash, phone, chew, creep, sight, catch,  and shell).
  • Call some students to underline digraph and trigraphs in the given words in turn.
  • Find the exercise related to the topic in the textbook.
  • Students must do this exercise in the notebook or on the textbook.


  • Assess students` understanding when they make words and pronounce them.
  • Focus must be on proper pronunciation.
  • Suggested words for spelling test next week, as; they, this, father, fish, dish, now, bow, chin, chum, these, slight, such, and church.

Follow up

  • Ask students to write the names of 5 objects and 5 animals, which contain the digraphs they have learnt in the lesson. Illustrate and color them if possible.
  • You must practice words with these digraphs throughout the year in different lessons whenever new words are taught to improve students` vocabulary and pronunciation.


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