Lesson Planning of Three States of Matter


Lesson Planning of Introduction to Three States of Matter

Subject General Science

Grade 4th

Students` Learning Outcomes

  • Define matter and give examples.
  • Identify three states of matter with examples.

Information for Teachers

  • All things around us are made of matter.
  • Anything that has mass and takes up space is matter.
  • Matter exists in three forms:







  • A solid can`t flow.
  • A liquid can flow.
  • Air is also a thing made of matter. Like other matter things, it has weight and takes up space. We can`t see air but we can feel its presence.
  • A solid have fixed shape, fixes volume and occupy space. Liquid don`t have fixed shape but have fixed volume. When a liquid is put in a container, it attains the shape of the container. Unlike these two things, gases don`t have fixed shape and volume. A gas attains the shape and volume of the container.
  • There are things in this world which aren`t matter such as; heat, light, sound, electricity and time.

Material / Resources

Writing board, chalk / marker, duster, chair, desk, books, rubber, pencil, water, perfume, two similar balloons, textbook, during teaching the lesson, teacher should also consult the text at all steps where and when required


  • Provide students a list of different solid and liquid objects or their picture.


  • Ask them to classify them in two different groups on the bases of similarities in their physical properties.
  • Now ask them to arrange the objects in two groups on the basis of the following points.



  • The objects which are hard and have fixed shape are solids groups.
  • The objects which can be poured or can flow and don`t have fixed shape.
  • Inform them that the objects in group (1) are solids and objects in group (II) are called liquids.



Activity 1

  • Show students solid objects available in the classroom: chalk, pencil, rubber, candle, book, rubber, table, chair, etc.


  • Ask students the following questions;


    1. Do all these solids have weight? (Expected response would be as; yes, all these solid things have weight)
    2. Do all solid things have fixed shape? (Expected response would be as; Yes)
    3. Do these solid things occupy space? (Expected response would be as; yes, all these solid things occupy space according to their sizes)
  • Inform them that any material thing which has a fixed shape and occupies fixed space is called a solid.
  • Show the students some liquids e.g. water, soda water, any syrup, juice and milk etc.
  • Ask students the following questions;


    1. Do all these liquids have weight?
    2. Do all these liquid cover space?
    3. Do all these liquid flow?
  • Inform them that material things which don`t have fixed shape but have fixed volume are called liquids.
  • Give the example of gases from daily life. Ask the students about gases for example, oxygen, nitrogen, water vapors (steam) etc.
  • Spray the air fresher, or perfume in the class (if available) and tell the students these vapours of perfume are gaseous form of matter. The perfume will spread throughout the room.
  • Inform students any material things which neither have fixed shape nor have fixed are called gases.

Activity 2

  • Take a bamboo stick (6 to 8 inches) long and tie a thread in the center of this stick and balance it.

Take two same size and same shape balloons.

  • Fill one of the balloons with air, balloon inflates which shows air occupies space; tie its mouth with a piece of thread.
  • Now fasten air filled balloon to one end of the stick and empty one to the other end of the stick.
  • Hold the stick from the middle thread and show the students that the stick bends towards the air filled balloon.
  • This shows that air has weight.

Activity 2

  • Divide students in groups.
  • Ask the students to write down the names of three solids, three liquids and three gases usually found in kitchen.
  • Students` response can be like this:

Sum up / Conclusion

  • Anything which has mass and covers space is called matter.
  • Matter exists in three states called solid, liquid, and gases.
  • All material things, solid, liquids and gases have mass and occupy space.
  • A gas occupies all the available space. Inform students that we will compare solids, liquids and gases on the bases of their shape, size and volume in next class.


  • Write down the names of the following material things on the writing board. ask the students to separate them in to solids, liquids and gases.
  • Television, kerosene oil, steam, bulb, orange, juice, flour, sugar, milk, petrol and ball.
  • Ask the students to name a drink which is prepared by nixing a solid, a liquid and a gas. (Expected answer would be as; Tea is prepared by mixing water, milk, tea leaves and sugar, no gas is mixed while preparing tea).
  • Involve the students in solving the questions given at the end of chapter / unit in textbook.

Follow up

  • Ask students to name three solid, three liquid and three gaseous things they used daily.
  • Ask: What is present in an empty glass? (Gas)

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