Students` learning outcomes
- Reproduce in speech, appropriate patterns of rhythm, stress and intonation through listening to stories and poems read aloud in class.
Information for Teachers
- Intonation Patterns: It is the variation in the pitch of the speaker`s voice used to give information or change meaning.
- There are three basic pitches in English; normal, high, and low.
- The normal pitch is where the voice usually moves between middle and high. .
- High is where the voice rises to indicate information focus.
- Low is where the voice falls, usually at the end of sentence.
- Stress: some syllables are stronger than other syllables and called stressed. (When we put emphasis on a word or sentence it becomes a stressed word or a stressed sentence.
- Importance of stress is that the position of stress can change the meaning of the word.
- Syllable: syllable is a group of letters that has one vowel (a, e, i, o, u) sound in it.
- Use of punctuation marks: full stop (.) shows a short pause, exclamation mark (!)
- Represents emotion like happiness, sorrow, shock, fear, question m ark (?) shows an inquiry of a problem.
- While teaching the lesson, the teacher should also use the textbook where appropriate.
Material / Resources
Writing board, chalk/marker, duster, textbook
- Begin by reading an example sentence aloud to the students (for example: Say this sentence aloud. (They saw a beautiful mountain at a distance).
- Ask the students if they remember anything about intonation from the last lesson.
- If they do, ask them to read the sentence the first time pronouncing each word slowly.
- Ask them to read the sentence for the second time.
- Ask students which reading looked more natural and why it seemed more natural.
- Recap the differences between stressed words and non-stressed words.
- Ask students which words in a sentence are stressed and which remain unstressed (i.e. principal verbs (walk, talk) are stressed, auxiliary verbs (is, are, was, were) are not stressed words.
- All the students, one by one, try speaking the following sentence: I can`t come her tomorrow (using the emotion of sorrow by one student and the emotion of anger by other).
- (The tone and the pitch for speaking both the sentences will be different-high pitch for anger- low pitch for sorrow
- Discuss with students that, in English, we give stress some words while some words are quickly spoken (some students say eaten!)
- We quickly speak, or swallow, a number of words in a sentence.
- Tell the students that we mostly stress nouns, adjectives, action words, etc. which are also called Contents Words.
- Write the lines on the board and ask students to read them together:
- “I won`t go to school tomorrow.” Sadie Husain informed Ali.
- “Why not?”
- “I am going to attend a marriage ceremony. It will be great fun!”
- “Okay, see you on Monday; then, enjoy your time!”
- “Thanks. Allah Hafiz!”
- There is different intonation patterns used for different types of sentences.
- The intonation pattern for statement is basically the same.
- The voice starts at a normal pitch, rises at the intonation focus word, falls back to normal after the intonation focus word, and falls to low at the end of the sentence.
- Tell the students that statements are sentences that report or give information about something, someone or some event.
- Ask the students to read in pairs the dialogues written on the board and practice the stress and punctuation patterns for five minutes.
- Write the poem on the writing boar;
- Model reading where teacher reads and children listen.
- When children read the poem ask them to stop on a full stop. (.) and count 123 in their heart.
- At punctuation mark ask them to say 12 in their heart and then starts again; when comma comes let them say 1 in their heart silently.
- This exercise provides the students with effective training of pauses required to be taken in the spoken text.
- It is good for producing effective speech patterns.
- Students read (in pairs) the poem written on the board and practice the rhythm, stress, and punctuation patterns for five minutes.
- Chanting: students’ reads/recite and repeat.
- Arrange a class competition and ask the students to reads the poem in pairs.
- The best pair must get a stare.
Sum up / Conclusion
- Ask students about the importance of intonation and rhythm in language.
- Remind them that stress and intonation can change the meaning, and it also makes our speech interesting and expressive.
- Assess the students through their responses by checking their punctuation.
- involve the students in solving the problems given in the exercise at end of unit/chapter.
Ask the students to:
Read the following sentences showing the required expression.
- I can`t come here tomorrow. (Using the emotion of sorrow/anger in their voice.)
- It is my birthday today.(Expression of excitement)
- There is a snake in the bathroom.(Expression-fear)
- Practices reading the poem with stress and intonation.