# Lesson Planning of Properties of Matter

Lesson Planning of Properties of three States of Matter

Subject General Science

Students` Learning Outcomes

• After studying this lesson, students will be able to:
• Describe the properties of the three states of matter on the basis of arrangement of particles.
• Demonstrate the arrangement of particles in three states of matter through models.

Science Process Skills

Observing, Classifying, communicating, predicting, inferring, making and using models

Information for Teachers

• All matter consists of particles. Particles are in constant motion. The arrangement of the particles and their motion are different in three different states of matter.

• In solids, particles are packed closely together in a regular pattern. They are held in their fixed position by strong attractive forces. The particles only vibrate about their fixed position. This is why solid has a definite shape and definite volume.
• In liquids, particles are not arranged in a regular pattern. The particles vibrate but don`t have a fixed position. Hence, they can flow and take up the shape of any container they fill.
• In gases, the particles are widely spread. They move freely in all directions at high speed. The shape and volume of the gas is the same as that of the container i.e. a gas has no fixed shape and no fixed volume.

Material / Resources

Writing board, chalk / marker, duster, a wooden block, a lead pencil, a glass full of water, three syringes, sand

Introduction

• Students have already learned about matter and its states (solids, liquids, and gases). All the three states are different from one another due to the arrangement of particles. Ask them to recall that:
1. Solids have fixed shape and volume.
2. Liquids have no fixed shape but have fixed volume.
3. Gases have no fixed shape and no fixed volume.

Development

Activity 1

Material required for this activity:

A wooden block, a lead pencil, a glass full of water

• Divide the class into suitable groups.
• Ask each group to push the lead pencil into the wooden block, what happens? Is there no space for the pencil to go inside the wooden block?
• Now push the same pencil into a glass full of water, was there any difficulty in dipping the pencil? Did some water spill out when the pencil was pushed into the glass?
• Now considering the air around you, do you feel any difficulty in moving the pencil in the air?

Activity 2

Material required for this activity:

Three syringes, water and sand

• Divide the class into suitable groups. Each group may be instructed to fill one syringe with sand, the other with water and the third with air. After the stoppers are fixed, the piston of each syringe may be pressed inwards. Write the findings observed in each case.

Activity 3

Material required for this activity:

Three bottles, beans of peas, dry flour

1. Fill a bottle with beans. Put the cap on it. If you shake the bottle, the beans don`t move around because they are tightly packed. Similar is the case of particles in solids. They stick close together due to greater attraction between them and give the solid its definite shape and size.

2. Put a few beans in a second bottle. Tilt the bottle a little. Do you see that they move easily? The beans in this case are like the particles of a liquid. The particles are separated far more than those of a solid. There is less attraction between them, so they can move easily. This is the reason why liquid flow and have no shape of their own. They take the shape of the vessel in which they are kept.

3. Now put some flour in the third bottle and shake it. Do you see how the flour particles are scattered around? The particles of gas are also spaced far apart. There is very little attraction between them that is why gas spreads out quickly in the space available to it.

Sum up / Conclusion

Solid:

• Particles in solids vibrate about their fixed position. They are close together and there are strong forces of attraction between them.

Liquid:

• Particles vibrate but they are free to move about in the liquid. The separation between the particles is greater than the solids and the forces of attraction are less.

Gas:

• Particles are free to move anywhere. They are far apart. Attractive forces are negligible and hence gases take up any available shape.

Assessment Question

1.      Fill in the blanks

a.       The particles of solid have _____ position whereas the particles of liquid and gases can _______ from one place to another.

b.      The particles of gases are ____ arranged in a regular pattern.

c.       The particles of liquid are arranged in ______ pattern but can move from one place to another.

d.      The attractive forces between particles of liquids are ______than solids but _____ than that gases.

e.       The attractive forces between the particles of gases are _____ than that of ____ and_____.

f.       The attractive forces between the particles of solids are _____ than that of ____ and _____.

2.       Describe the arrangement  and motion of the particles in :

(A)   A solid     (B) A liquid

(C)  A gas         (D) nothing

3. Draw pictures to illustrate the arrangement of particles in solids, liquids and gases: