Lesson Planning of Spelling Changes


Students` Learning Outcomes

  • Apply spelling change in plural form of regular and irregular nouns and regular and irregular verb forms.

Information for teachers

  • To make plural form of most nouns add‘s’ to the end of the word, as; cup = cups, snake = snakes, etc.
  • Add ‘es’ to the end of a noun that ends in s, x, z, ch, and sh, as; box = boxes, match = matches, brush = brushes, bus = buses, etc.
  • Also make sure that the students know the meaning of all the vocabulary introduced in this lesson. In Standard English plural form words usually have a ‘z’ sound at the end: as; chairs (spoken as chairz), girls (spoken as girlz).
  • Nouns ending in ‘y’ preceded by a consonant are formed into a plural by changing ‘y’ to –ies such as, lady/ladies, city/cities, baby/babies.
  • Some nouns that end in ‘f’ or ‘fe’, drop f or fe and add ‘ves’ such as loaf = loaves, thief = thieves, etc.
  • Some nouns that end in ‘f’ add‘s’ to form the plural such as; belief = beliefs, cliff = cliffs, etc.
  • Some nouns have irregular plural forms with out’s’ such as; man = men, woman = women, child = children, goose = geese, louse = lice, mouse = mice, ox = oxen, etc.
  • The simple present tense expresses daily habits or routine activities.
  • When the subject is third person singular (e.g. he, she, it), add a final, -es to the verb for example wash = washes, catch = catches, pass = passes, write = writes, etc.
  • Generally when words end in sh, ch, o, or x we add –es (washes, catches, goes, boxes).

Material / Resources

Writing board, chalk/marker, duster, textbook


  • Write the following poem on the board and ask the students to copy or write this poem on a chart.
  • Ask the students to tell what the poem is about.
  • Ask them to find out five words with‘s’ and –‘es’ endings.
  • Once they tell the words, ask them to tell whether these words are noun plurals or an addition to the verbs?
  • Divide the class in four groups and make 4 columns on the board to write group 1, 2, 3, 4 in them.
  • Give those groups different themes and ask them to think of some naming words: as; garden, classroom, playground, kitchen, animal, kingdom/zoo, road, etc. then ask them to turn them into plurals.
  • Ask the students to come up with nouns and their plurals.
  • The group which comes up with the most correct answers will be the winner. Revise some irregular plural nouns such as child, man, woman, ox, thief, mouse, etc.
  • Tell the changes in the spelling of the irregular nouns in detail by using the above information.


Activity 1

  • Tell how he/she spends his/her day.
  • Write 2 – 3 sentences on the board, such as;
  1. I get up early in the morning; I take breakfast at 7 o` clock, etc.
  • Then ask one student to tell the time he/she gets up in the morning.
  • Write the students` responses on the board with third person singular e.g. as;
  • She gets up early in the morning, he goes for a walk, etc. then underline verbs in the sentences and Ask the students why we add‘s’, ‘es’ to the verbs.
  • Revise simple present tense and –‘s’ and –‘es’ verb forms/spelling changes.


Activity 2

  • Draw a two column table on the board and ask the students to copy.
  • Write ‘singular’ in one column and ‘plural’ in the other.
  • Write the following words on the board, as; children, hobby, city, thief, mice, tables, story, leaves, catch, man, snake, woman, match, buses, churches, oxen, countries, tooth, shelves’
  • Ask the students to write the singulars of the plural words and plurals of the singular words.









  • Once the students have done the activity, write the singular and plural words in their respective columns and change them into singular and plural as well.
  • Ask the students to make self-corrections.



Activity 3

  • Write the following sentences on the board and ask the students to read carefully.
  • Ask the students to correct these sentences by changing the underlined verb forms accordingly.
  1. Ali work in a bank.
  2. He go to the office at 8 o`clock every day.
  3. Ayesha lives in Karachi.
  4. It takes five minutes to reach school.
  5. She always completes her work before time.
  6. She washes her clothes on every weekend.
  7. He always put the library books back I their shelves.
  • Monitor and help the students



Sum up / Conclusion

  • Ask the students: as;
  1. What are nouns?
  2. How do we make plurals of singular nouns?
  3. Why do we add‘s’ and –‘es’ with verbs?


  • Assess the students while doing activity 2.
  • Involve the students in the relevant exercise given in the textbook.

Follow up

  • Ask the students to find at least five irregular nouns from their textbook and make plurals.
  • Ask the students to write about their friend`s daily routine using simple present tense.

Answers key

Ali works in a bank.

He goes to the office at 8 o’clock every day.

Ayesha lives in Karachi.

It takes five minutes to reach school.

She always completes her work before time.

She washes her clothes on every weekend.

He always puts the library books back in their shelves.


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