Vowels and Consonants Sounds


Lesson Planning of Vowels and Consonants Sounds

Subject English

Grade 1st

Students` Learning Outcomes

  • Recognize and identify consonant and vowels in the English alphabet.

Information for Teachers

  • Remind your students that ‘a/an’, are used only when you want to say ‘one’ with a noun. They are not used each time you name an object.

Vowels and Consonants

  • Demonstrate to the students how the sounds a, e, I, o, u, are produced without stopping in the oral cavity. Tell them these are vowel sounds. Demonstrate sound of other remaining letters called consonant sounds which have hindrance in the oral cavity.
  • While teaching the lesson, the teacher should also consult textbook at all steps where and when applicable.

Material / Resources         

Writing board, chalk/marker, duster, chart with different activities, flashcards


  • Introduce the activity as a ‘Backwards Quiz’.
  • Make a sound, and students guess the letter that makes that sound. Make vowel sounds ‘Oo, A, ay’ etc. in an exaggerated manner, very loud, clear and stretch them long. If you had the letter ‘e’ in mind when you made a sound, and the students answered with ‘I’ accept that answer too, as in some cases that may be true too.

  • Tell the students that when we make sounds for which we don`t join our teeth or lips or move our tongue too much, those are vowels.


Activity 1

  • Tell students that for some sounds we move our lips, teeth and tongue. Make an exaggerated ‘p’ sound by putting your lips together.
  • Ask them to repeat the sound.
  • Ask them which letter has that sound. If they say P, tell them this is a consonant because we moved our lips to block the air.
  • Repeat the same steps for letters ‘T’ (join teeth in an exaggerated manner), F (join teeth and lower lip in exaggerated manner)
  • Now mix some vowel and consonant sounds and ask them if the sound you just made was a vowel or a consonant.

Activity 2


  • Take out flash cards of letters a, e, I, o, u, and ask students names of the letters and pictures whose names start with these letters. Then say e.g. an apple, an egg, an elephant etc.
  • Tell them, we add ‘an’ before names of things starting with these letters (only when we are talking about one apple or one egg etc.)
  • Practice with flash cards and pictures asking students to say ‘an’ with ‘apple’. Put it in different sentences:
  1. I just ate an apple.
  2. Do you want to eat an apple?
  3. I found an apple in the park.
  4. I gave an apple to my friend.
  • Ask the students to say it with you when you say ‘an apple’.

Activity 3


Now show them all the other letters. Ask students names of the things starting with these letters. Then say e.g. a boy, a pin, a baby, etc. ask them to repeat after you.

  • Tell them, we add ‘a’ before names of things starting with these letters. Practice with flash cards and pictures asking students to say a while you say baby.


Activity 4

  • Take out flash cards of mixed letters a, t, s, o, y, u, etc.
  • Ask students to produce the sound for the letter on their own and then decide to put ‘a/an’ before names of the letters and pictures whose names start with these letters. Practice with flash cards and pictures until all students have understood the concept.
  • Point to things in the classroom and outside to reinforce the concept for example, as;
  1. An open door
  2. A closed door

Conclusion / Sum up

  • Narrate ‘a’ in 3-4 sentences of story asking students to fill in ‘a/an’. Bring the objects for which ‘a/an’ are to be used and show them when you reach that part of the story, as;
  1. I had—— banana (show children the banana) in the morning. Usually I have—apple (Show the apple). Then I had — idea. I went to see —– friend. Can you guess what present I took for her? I gave her —-umbrella (show umbrella) as a present!


  • Use the development and follow up activities to assess student progress.
  • Teacher is also required to involve the student in solving the problems given in the exercise at end of unit / chapter.

Follow up

  • Continue to give students practice through repetition of the above activities at regular intervals.
  • Point out the use of ‘a/an’ in your daily conversation with the children, as;
  1. It`s a sunny day.
  2. I have an aunt.
  3. My mother reads an English newspaper.
  4. I saw an elephant in the zoo.




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