Low Cost/No Cost Material
Low cost / No cost Materials are the teaching aids require no cost or available cheaply and developed by locally available resources and expedite the process of learning in the classroom. Low cost/ No cost materials are developed from the waste and help the teachers in making the teaching interesting and concrete.
Key Words and Ideas
· Resource source of help (Resources can be human and material)
· Resource material anything that helps in clarifying the concepts of a topic
· L C material –low cost materials
· Low cost/no cost material all types of materials that can be of very low cost or no cost obtained from the environment to simplify the teaching of a subject or concepts of a topic
· Resource materials, audio visual aids should be used by the teachers to make their teaching effective and ensured learning.
Comenious was the first educator who introduced the use of audio-visual aids in teaching during 16th century. He give importance to “sense realism” that means-when all senses are involved in learning process, concept become clearer and are remembered for a longer time. He introduced the idea of “sense appeal” through effective use of pictures, charts, diagrams, and models.
The ideas of using AV aids are arise when firsthand experience (the world of realia) is not possible to use in the classroom due to some reasons, but it is important to remember that reality is always the best aid to teach and understand and very important element of the audio visual aids.
Basic Purpose of Using Audio Visual Aids
Visual aids are very important and effective in the process of meaningful teaching and learning. If we use audio-visual aids considering the needs of the students as well as the lesson, impact of lesson, teaching and classroom environment is long lasting.
· Visual aids capture the attention of students and they start participating and taking interest in the lesson.
· Students not only clarify their concept but also associate their abstract concepts with the visual aids and they get better understanding of the concepts.
· Visual examples from surroundings of the daily life work as great motivation for the students. Paul Stephens (1994) said that for the effective teaching it is necessary for the teachers to make subject exciting and like that whenever possible the students can relate to their real world.
Use of AV Aids in Pakistani Schools
In most of the schools it has been observed that teachers pay least attention in using AV aids while delivering their lesson although they are professionally trained and well aware of the importance of using resource materials for effective teaching/learning.
Majority of the teachers mentioned following reason for not using the resource materials while teaching.
· Limited Budget-allocations
· Excessive work load
· Non availability of required materials
· Limited exposure (training, refresher courses, resource person, guidance and counseling by the head teacher) handicaps them to develop substitute teaching materials.
· Sometimes a careless attitude of the teachers in using the resource materials while teaching.
Tips for Developing Resource/LC Material
· Teachers should take great interest in selection of creative teaching techniques and must incorporate AV aids in their lesson plan. Nothing is impossible when there is a will there is a way.
· Maximize student participation to lesson teacher’s work load.
· Head teacher may act as a resource person.
· School canteen can be a good source to collect resource materials.
· Every year assign a project to senior classes of 9th and 10th that become a permanent part of the school such as wall clock making and hang it in the classroom or one point camera making and take a group photo of that year students with their respective teacher and principal and display it in the entrance or any important place.
· Honor the class by placing their names on their projects.
· Students individually and in groups under the supervision of subject teacher may be assigned the preparation of teaching aids which may help out to meet the expenditure.
· Hold student’s competitions individual and in groups for model preparation. Such a brain storming initiative will motivate them to come out with hundreds of new ideas ensuring learning.
· Display student’s projects in the form of exhibition to inspire others to participate in such competitions.
· Appreciate innovative ideas that are not copied from anywhere.
Types of Resource Material Used for Teaching
Teaching aids based from surrounding:
c) Classroom Objects
d) Writing Board
e) Library old newspapers
f) School dustbins
The teachers themselves: The teacher can use gesture, facial expression and actions to show the meaning of words and to explain situations wear makeup, colors and clothes that have some symbolic meaning to the lesson.
· Children: Children, illustrate the situation according to the instructions given by the teacher.
· Classroom Objects: Such as table, chairs, window, fans etc. can be used as AV aids to give some specific concepts e. g. talking about materials, preposition (asking position of different objects) shape, colors etc.
· Writing Board: the teacher or students can use it to draw pictures, diagrams, maps etc.
Three types of Resource Material can be used for successful teaching/learning as per requirement.
Printed Materials Audio-Visual Material Display Material Textbook & Reference Radio Pictures
News Paper Cassette & Tape Recorder Flash Cards
Magazines Television 3D &b 2D Models
Photographs Cable Television Charts
Calendars/ Postcards Satellite Television Graphs
VCR & Video Tape Maps
Transparency Posters & Bulletin Board
Computers/CD’s Peg Board
Film Strips Flannel Board Small
Mobile Videos and Sounds Museums Containing real