Meanings of the Terms/Words which are used in General Science Grade VI, VII and VIII
A list of terms in a special subject, field, or area of usage.
A compound containing hydrogen which dissolves in water to produce hydrogen ions (H+) in the solution.
Acid rain
Rain water which is more acidic than usual. Rain water normally has a pH between 5 & 6 but acid rains have pH below 5
Acidic salts
Salt obtained as a result of reaction between strong acid & weak base (Na2 CO3)
A pressurized container used to spray liquids, like paint, in a fine mist
A base which dissolves in water is an alkali
An air sac found in the ling which is adapted for gaseous exchange
An instrument for measuring electric current
Chemicals used to treat many infectious diseases caused by microorganisms such as bacteria
Apparent brightness
How bright a star looks to observes on earth
A sexual reproduction
Reproduction that doesn’t involve the fusion of two gametes
Large lumps of rock and metal that orbit the sun in a region called the asteroid belt between mars and Jupiter
A scientist who studies the stars, planets, and other objects in space
The scientific study of the objects in space such as stars, asteroids and planets
The science of the physical and chemical aspects of heavenly bodies
The blanket of gases that surrounds the earth
Atmospheric pressure
The pressure caused by the weight of the air pressing down on the earth’s surface
This is a basic of matter which can’t be further divided
Basic salts
Salt obtained as a result of reaction between strong base and weak acid (NaHCO3)
Big bang
A tremendous explosion on the beginning of the universe
Big bang theory
The idea that all the matter in the universe came into being with a massive explosion known as the big bang
The use of biological process from microorganisms to make substances (e.g. penicillin) or to provide services for human beings
Black hole
What is left when a very massive star collapses at the end of its life. A black hole’s gravity is so strong that nothing can escape, not even light
The process that brings about an exchange of gases between the organisms and the environment
One of the many tiny tubes which carries air to end from the alveoli in the lungs
A lung disease in which the cells lining the bronchi and bronchioles are inflamed
A disease in which body’s cell start to divide and multiply in an uncontrolled and disorderly fashion
Chemical Reaction
A change in which one or more chemical elements or compounds(reactants) form new compounds(the products)
The scientific study of all substances and how they react and combine
A green pigment found in most plants. It absorbs light energy during photosynthesis
A thread-like structure present in the nucleus of a cell. It contains hereditary materials called genes
A mixture of extremely small particles of a substance dispersed in another in which it doesn’t dissolve. The particles are smaller than in a suspension
An icy jump of material that moves around the sun in a highly elliptical orbit, its ‘tail’ is a thin stream of gas and dust that reflects sunlight
It consists of two or more elements chemically combined together
Stars that appear to form a group with a definite pattern or arrangement, when viewed from the earth
Current electricity
The type of electricity that can flow through wires
Process of separating a liquid from a solid that has settled by pouring the liquid carefully out of the container
Destruction of forests due to human activities
Substances which when added to water, enable it to remove dirt
A muscular from the abdomen,’ sheet that separates the chest
The process of separating a mixture of liquids, or a liquid from an impurity, by heating. The vapor of the liquid with the lowest boiling point comes off first and is condensed back to a liquid in the condenser
(Deoxyribonucleic acid)  Hereditary material of the cell
Dwarf star
A very small star that may be no larger than earth
A type of generator that produces direct current
The total or partial disappearance of a heavenly body when another one moves between it and the viewer
A muscle that respond to a message and reacts accordingly
Electric charge
Something that has an electric charge carries electricity. There are two types of electric charge, called positive and negative
Electric circuit
The path along which an electric current flows
Electric current
The flow of positive or negative electric charges
Electric field
The area in which an electric force has an effect
Electric motor
A device that changes electrical energy into movement
Electric shock
The effects on the human body caused by electric current from batteries
The effect caused by the presence or movement of electrically charged particles
Chemical reactions produced by passing electric current
Electrolytes are chemical compounds, that help electric current to pass through them on ionization (e.g., Na CI, H2SO4)
It is a pure substance which contains same type of elements
Endothermic reaction
A chemical reaction that takes heat from its surroundings
A change of state from liquid to gaseous (vapor), due to the escape of molecules from the surface. A liquid which readily evaporates is described as volatile
Evening star
Another name for the planet Venus, as it appears just after sunset
Exothermic reaction
A chemical reaction that releases heat into its surroundings
The process of separating a liquid and a solid by pouring the mixture through a fine mesh (filter paper). The filter paper only lets liquid through PTO
A large group of stars, gas and dust
An instrument for detecting or measuring very small electric currents
A reproductive cell containing the haploid number of chromosomes
Units controlling inheritance and expression of characters
Genetic engineering
A technique used to transfer genes from one organism to another
The genetic combination in an individual
A machine that turns the energy of movement, or kinetic energy into electrical energy
Guard cells
A pair of special cells present around opening (stomata) in the epidermis of a leaf that regulate the opening and closing of stomata
Hereditary characters
Characteristics which are inherited
Transfer of characters from parents to their offspring
A chemical compound that changes its color when an acid or an alkali is added into it
A material that reduces heat transfer
Irregular galaxy
A galaxy with no definite shape or arrangement
Kilogram (kg)
Units of mass
A piece of transparent substance with curved surfaces, that makes light bend in a certain way
The distance light travels in one year, or 9.5 trillion kilometers
The term that describes any object that gives off light
The amount of matter that is in an object
Cells found between upper and lower epidermis in a leaf. These cells contain chloroplasts
Meter (or shooting star)
A meteoroid that starts to burn up as it enters the atmosphere
Fragments of rocks striking the surface of the earth. The remains of a meteor that has survived the atmosphere and landed on earth
A small piece of space debris
Rocks or fragments of rocks and iron travelling in space
Meter (m)
Unit of length. 1000 meters equals 1 kilometer (km)
Milky way
A spiral galaxy to which out sun and the planets belong. The galaxy in which our solar system lies
Milky way galaxy
Such a galaxy containing solar system
Mineral acid
An acid which is produced chemically from a mineral e.g. hydrochloric acid is produced from sodium chloride and sulphuric acid is produced from sulpher
It is formed by the combination of two substances in such a way that no new substance is formed
A representation of something that can’t be seen easily or directly
It is formed by the combination of same or different atoms
Motor neurons
A nerve cell that transmits impulses to an effector
Gigantic clouds of dust and gases in space
A collection of nerve fibers
Nerve fiber
A long cytoplasmic extension of a cell body of a neuron. It serves to transmit impulses
A nerve cell
Neutron star
A star whose core contains neutrons only
Describes an object that doesn’t give out light of its own
Optical microscope
An instrument that uses lenses to make small objects look bigger
Optical telescope
An instrument that uses lenses and mirrors to make distant objects look closer
The path in which one heavenly body moves around another
Organic acid
An organic compound that is acidic in nature. The most common ones are carboxylic acid (e.g., oxalic acid, formic acid, acetic acid)
Palisade tissues
Cylindrical cells arranged closely and vertically in the upper layer of mesophyll. These cells contain numerous chloroplasts which facilitate the absorption of sunlight
Stands for power of hydrogen, a measure of hydrogen ion concentration in a solution
Powered by the pressure of a gas, usually air
A measure of the amount of force applied to a given area
Sense organ, cell or nerve endings that detect stimulus
Rendering used articles into useful ones
Reflex action
An immediate response to a specific stimulus without conscious control
The process by which energy is released from food substances in living cells
The movement of one object around another
The spinning motion of an object
A compound formed by the neutralization reaction between acid & base
Bodies that rotate in orbits around other bodies of greater mass under the influence of a gravitational field. For example, the moon is a natural satellite of the earth. Satellites which are used for relying radio, television and telephone signals around the earth are artificial earth satellites. They are called communication satellites.
Second (s)
Unit of time. A second is a duration in which the cesium -133 atom completes 9,192,631,770 vibrations under specified conditions
Selective breeding
Technology using breeding of selected organisms
Sexual reproduction
Reproduction that involves the fusion of two reproductive cells called gametes
SI units
An internationally agreed system of standard units used for scientific measurements
It is the sodium or potassium salt of a long-chain carboxylic acid. It is made by reacting animal fats or vegetable oils with Na OH or KOH. The process of making soap is called saponification
Solar system
The sun together with all of the planets and other objects orbiting it
Solar wind
A constant stream of invisible particles blow out into space from the sun
Space probe
Unmanned spacecraft sent to explore the solar system and beyond
Space shuttle
A reusable manned spacecraft that is launched like a rocket, but lands on reentry like plane
Space station
A large satellite orbiting the earth where astronauts can live and perform scientific research over fairly long period
Shinning objects of gases in nebula
This is a star
An extremely large star
Fine particles of a solid suspended in a liquid in which the solid doesn’t dissolve
True brightness
The actual amount of energy in the form of light that is released by a star
Universe (for cosmos)
The collection of all matter, energy and space that exists
Universe theory
The idea that the universe expands and shrinks, in a repeating cycle of big bangs and big crunches
An empty space where there are no particles of air or other matter
Variable resister (or rheostat)
An electronic component that can be adjusted to give different amounts of resistance
Variable star
A star that changes gradually in brilliance
The differences that can be observed within a species
Voluntary action
An action that is controlled by the will
The amount of space something takes up. It is measured in cubic meters (m3). A smaller unit of volume is the cubic centimeter (cm3), o0 milliliter (ml). 1 cm3= 1 ml=1/1000000m3
Weather forecast
A prediction of what the weather will be for some time in the future
The measure of the force of gravity acting on an object
Wavelength, high-frequency electromagnetic waves that can pass through most soft substances but no hard, dense ones
A cell formed as a result of the fusion of the sperm and the ovum. It divides repeatedly and becomes the embryo



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