Proper and Improper Fractions

Lesson Plan of Proper and Improper Fractions

Subject Mathematics

Grade III

Students` Learning Outcomes

  • Differentiate between proper and improper fractions.

Information for Teachers

Proper and Improper Fractions

  • An improper fraction is “top heavy” which means that the numerator is more than the denominator e.g.

Proper and Improper Fractions

  • Its value is always more than unit.
  • A fraction is proper when it numerator is smaller than denominator, and its value is always less than unit e.g.

Proper and Improper Fractions

  • While teaching the lesson, also consult textbook where and when applicable.

Material / Resources

Writing board, chalk/marker, duster, paper strips, fraction cards, fraction strips, box, coloured chalk


  • Show different kinds of diagrams of proper fractions to the class.

Proper and Improper Fractions

  • Ask students to tell the fraction of each diagram.
  • Show diagram of improper fraction and ask for the difference in both one.

Proper and Improper Fractions

  • Tell the students that proper fraction is less than 1 whereas improper fraction is more than 1.
  • Write the fraction on the board e.g.

Proper and Improper Fractions

  • Ask students how each fraction is different from the other.
  • Use proper vocabulary e.g. proper and improper fraction.

Proper and Improper Fractions


Activity 1

  • Show one paper strip to the students.

Proper and Improper Fractions

  • Discuss how to share one strip with two students.
  • Ask student what fraction each child has; write the fraction on the board.
  • Now show three strips and discuss how to share equally among two students.
  • Allow the children to try and figure out how this will be done.
  • Guide them in dividing all 3 strips in half and each child gets 3 halves.
  • Ask how can we write it?
  • Ask them to write it mathematically on the board.

Proper and Improper Fractions

  • Make student realize that in first situation each student got less than a whole strip but in second case each student gets more than a whole strip.
  • Discuss ½ and 3/2 fractions highlight values of numerator and denominator in both cases.
  • Draw attention to the fact that in case of ½ the fraction shows a quantity less than 1, the numerator is less than the denominator. Such fractions are called proper fractions.
  • Ask “is 3/2 a proper fraction?”
  • Draw attention to the fact that 3/2 shows a quantity more than 1 and its numerator is bigger than the denominator. Such fractions are called improper fractions.

Activity 2

  • Write different proper and improper fractions on the cards.

Proper and Improper Fractions

  • Put them in a box and give this resource to students in groups.
  • Ask one group to collect proper fraction cards and other groups of students to collect improper fraction card.
  • After cards collection ask each group to paste their collected cards on a chart paper, give a title ‘proper fraction’ and ‘improper fraction’.

Proper and Improper Fractions

  • Hang chart papers in front of class and give a presentation about proper and improper fractions.

Activity 3

  • Divide class into groups.
  • Hang a fraction board (as shown in the figure) on the writing board; provide a coin and colour chalks or marker to the students.

Proper and Improper Fractions

  • Call students turn by turn from each group.
  • Ask them to flip the coin, if head appears students need to colour a proper fraction with marker. If tall comes they will colour improper fraction.
  • If they colour correctly, one point will be given to students otherwise student will lose one mark and turn will go to other group.
  • Winner will be appreciated with a gift.

Sum up / Conclusion

  • Conclude the lesson by repeating that in a proper fraction the numerator is less than a denominator is greater than the denominator.
  • Ask any two examples of proper and improper fraction.


  • Give some fractions to students and ask them to separate proper fractions and improper fraction.
  • Ask students to complete the sheet by writing fraction, and also circle improper fractions.

Proper and Improper Fractions

Follow up

  • Ask students to write 10 examples of proper and improper fractions in their notebooks.

Proper and Improper Fractions

  • Ask students to show any two proper and improper fraction through diagram.

Ask the students to solve the questions given in the textbook.

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