TEACHING STRATEGIES & BLOOM’S TAXONOMY: A COGNITIVE, EFFECTIVE, PSYCHO MOTOR DOMAIN
Background of Bloom’s TAXONOMY
· Bloom’s Taxonomy was shaped in 1956 under the leadership of educational psychologist Dr Benjamin Bloom in order to endorse higher forms of thinking in education, such as analyzing and evaluating concepts, processes, procedures, and principles, somewhat than just remembering facts
What Bloom Taxonomy is used for?
· Bloom’s taxonomy is a ordering system used to define and differentiate diverse levels of human cognition—i.e., thinking, learning, and understanding.
What is taxonomy of education?
· Bloom’s taxonomy is a set of three categorized models used to organize educational learning objectives into levels of intricacy and specificity. The three lists cover the learning objectives in cognitive, effective and sensory domains.
· The educational objectives are divided into three domains according to this taxonomy. These are;
a) Cognitive domain
b) Effective domain
c) Psycho motor domain
I. Cognitive Domain:
· It deals with thinking process and mental faculties. It is further divided in six sub groups by Bloom in 1956.
i. Knowledge is defined as the remembering of previously learned material.
ii. This is the lowest level of learning
iii. This involves recalling of simple facts to complete theories
iv. This includes:
(a) Knowledge of facts e.g. solids expand o heating.
(b) Knowledge of terms e.g. Abiogenesis.
(c) Knowledge of principles e.g. Boyles Law, Charles Law.
(d) Knowledge of concepts e.g. forces, solubility
(e) Knowledge of methods and procedures e.g. scientific method.
i. Comprehension is defined as the ability to grasp the meaning of material.
ii. This may be shown by:
(a) Translating Material
(b) Interpreting Material
(c) Estimating future trends
iii. Level of learning is one step higher to that knowledge.
iv. Example: Explain Newton’s third law of motion.
i. Application refers to the ability to use learner material in new and concrete situation.
ii. This includes application of rules, methods concepts, principles, laws and theories.
iii. This requires higher level of understanding.
iv. Example: Why does water pipe burst when temperature falls to 00C
i. Analysis denotes to the ability to break down material into its apparatuses parts so that its organizational structure may be understood.
ii. This includes:
(a) Identification of parts
(b) Analysis of relationship between parts
(c) Recognition of organizational principles.
iii. Level of learning is higher than that of comprehension and application.
iv. Example: Analyze the organizational structure of art, music or writing.
I. Synthesis denotes to the skill to put parts together to form a new whole.
II. This may involve:
(a) Production of new speech or theme
(b) Production of research proposal
(c) Production of scheme for classifying information
iii. This lead to formulation of new patterns or structures
VI. Example: write a creative short story
i. Evaluation is concerned with the ability to judge the value of material like novel, report or poem for a given purpose.
ii. Judgments are based on definite criteria
iii. This is the highest level of learning outcomes in cognitive hierarchy.
iv. Example: Evaluate the poetry of AL lama IQBAL
A. Effective Domain:
· It deals with attitudes, liking, disliking, habits, values and feelings. It is further divided into five subgroups by EARTHWORK 1964.
i. Receiving refer to students willingness to attend a particular phenomenon.
ii. This is the lowest level of learning out come in affective domain.
(a) Attending classroom activities
(b) Listening textbook reading
(c) Listening music
i. Responding refers to active participation on the parts of the students.
ii. This involves:
(a) Reading assigned material
(b) Reading voluntarily
(c) Reading for pleasure
iii. These include objectives concerned with interest and enjoyment.
iv. Example: A student
(a) Completes assigned home work
(b) Obeys school rules
(c) Participants classroom discussion
(d) Completes laboratory work
i. Valuing is concerned with the worth or value a student attaches to a particular object, phenomenon
ii. This ranges from simple acceptance of value to more complex level of commitment.
iii. This includes objectives concerned with attitude and appreciation.
(a) Appreciating good literature or music
(b) Appreciating science
(c) Showing concern for the welfare of the other
(d) Demonstrating problem solving attitude.
i. Organization is concerned with:
(a) Bringing together different values
(b) Resolving conflicts between them
(c) Building internal consistent value system
ii. This includes objectives concerned with development of philosophy of life.
(a) Recognizing for balance between freedom and responsibility in democracy.
(b) Understanding accepting own strength and limitations.
i. At this level, the individual has a value system that controls the behavior for a sufficiently long time to develop a characteristic life style.
ii. Learning outcomes indicates typical behavior of the students.
(a) Displaying safety consciousness
(b) Using objectives approach in problem solving
(c) Maintaining good health habits
(d) Practicing co-operation in group activities.
B. Psychomotor Domain:
· It deals with the development of psycho motor skills. It is further divided into seven subgroups by SIMPSON in 192.
i. It is concerned with the use of sense organs to obtain cues that guide motor activity.
(a) Observing computer for operating
i. Set refers to readiness to take particular type of action.
ii. This include:
(a) Mental readiness to act
(b) Physical readiness to act
(c) Motivational readiness (willingness) to act
iii. Example: showing desire to compose
v Guided Response:
i. Guided response include early stages for learning skill
ii. It includes:
(b) Trial and error
(a) Performing experiments as demonstrated
(b) Applying first aid bandages as demonstrated
(c) Operating microscope as demonstrated
i. Learned responses become habitual
ii. Movements can be performed with some confidence and proficiency
iii. Movement patterns are less complex
(a) Setting laboratory and equipment
(b) Writing smoothly and legibly
(c) Operating a slide projector
v Complex Overt Response:
i. It involves complex movement patterns
ii. Learned responses are performed skillfully
iii. Proficiency is indicated by a quick, smooth, accurate, performance, requiring a minimum of energy
iv. Performance is made without hesitation
v. Movements are with ease and good muscle control
vi. Learning outcome include coordinated motor activities
(a) Operating computer skillfully
(b) Demonstrating skill in driving automobile
(c) Demonstrating correct form in swimming
i. In this stage, skill are so highly developed that an individual can modify movement
(a) Adjusting tennis play to counteract opponent’s style.
(b) Modifying swimming strokes to fit the roughness of water
i. It refers to the creating of a new movement patterns to face a specific problem
ii. Learning outcome emphasize creativity
(a) Creating a musical composition
(b) Designing a new dress style