What are Grammar- Translation /Tradition Method of teaching English as second language, what its Principles?
· Grammar-Translation Method of Teaching a English as Foreign Language
· The Grammar-Translation Method is not new. It has had different names, but it has been used by language teachers for many years, at one time it was called classical method since it was first used in the teaching of the classical languages.
· The grammar–translation method is a method of teaching English as foreign language… Innovative students may be required to translate whole texts word-for-word.
· Grammar Translation Method. Occasionally also known as the Traditional Method, this is a traditional teaching technique that was used to teach Latin and Greek and was particularly in trend during the 16th Century. The focus at this time was on the translation of texts, grammar, and memorization learning of vocabulary.
· Grammar–translation classes are usually conducted in the students’ native language. Grammar rules are learned deductively; students learn grammar rules by citation needed and then practice the rules by doing grammar drills and translating sentences to and from the target language
· There is not usually any listening or speaking practice, and very little attention is placed on pronunciation or any communicative aspects of the language. The skill exercised is reading, and then only in the context of translation.
The principles of the Grammar-Translation Method:
1) A fundamental purpose of learning foreign language is to be able to read its literature. Literary language is superior to spoken language. Student’s study of the foreign culture is limited to its literature and fine arts.
2) An important objective is for students to be able to translate each language into the other. If students can translate from one language into another, they are measured successful language learners.
3) The skill to interconnect in the target language is not a aim of foreign language instruction.
4) The primary skills to be developed are reading and writing. Little attention is given to speaking and listening and almost none to pronunciation.
5) The teacher is the authority in the classroom. It is very important that students get the correct answer.
6) It is possible to find native language equivalence for all target words.
7) Learning is facilitated through attention to similarities between the target language and the native language.
8) It is important for students to learn about the form of the second language.
9) Deductive application of an explicit grammar rule is a useful pedagogical technique.
10) Language learning provides good mental exercise.
11) Students should be conscious of the grammatical rules of the target language.
12) Use of mother tongue.
13) Vocabulary items are taught in the form of word lists.
14) Elaborate explanations of grammar.
15) Focus on the morphology and syntax.
16) Reading of difficult texts early in the course.
17) Practice focuses on exercises translating sentences or texts from mother tongue to the target language and vice versa.