What are the Gerund and the Participle in English?
- A Gerund is the form of verb which ends in “ing” and is partly a verb and partly a noun. (It is a adverbial noun). So, a gerund is the form of an –ing verb used as a noun. A present participle always goes with the verb TO BE to form a continuous tense.
- What are the gerund and the participle in English?
- The gerund is called the form of the present participle of the verb that acts as a noun in a sentence. It is very easy to recognize it, as it ends in –ing. The gerund can be both affirmative (cry – crying) and negative (not crying).
- Both the Gerund and the infinitive have the force of a noun and a verb. Therefore, their uses are also similar, as; Smoking is injurious to health. The word smoking is formed with addition of ‘ing’ with ‘smoke’ so this works for ‘noun’ because is used as a subject of the verb, so in this way it is both count as ‘noun’, and ‘Gerund’
- Gerunds functions as nouns. Thus, gerunds will be subjects, subject –complements, direct objects, indirect objects, and objects of prepositions.
- Present Participles, on the other hand, complete progressive verbs or act as modifiers.
- Gerund may be used as under:
1. 1. Subject of a verb:
- Smoking is injurious to health.
- Drinking breeds many diseases.
- Walking is useful for health.
2. 2. Object of Transitive Verb:
- I hate gambling.
- Children stopped talking.
- We enjoy playing on Sunday.
3. 3. Subject of Preposition:
- She is fond of singing.
- I am tired of studying.
- He is in the habit of smoking.
4. 4. Complement of a Verb:
- Seeing is the believing.
- The most hated thing is lying.
- Hearing is obeying.
- What he likes best is fishing.
5. 5. As a Compound Noun:
- A flyingplane (A plane for flying)
- A frying pan (A pan for frying)
- A swimmingcostume (A costume for swimming)
6. 6. Preceded by a Noun or Pronoun:
- Note: When gerund is preceded by a noun or pronoun, it must be in the possessive form. (Ali`s, Ahmad`s, my, your, his, her, our, etc.) As the gerund is finally a noun. Such as;
- He insisted on my being present in the meeting.
- I hope you will excuse my leaving early.
- She persisted in Ali`s staying with her.
7. Sometimes, a Gerund in the Possessive Case is not used:
- ( (A) When it denotes a lifeless thing, as;
1. There is no possibility of train coming late.
2. There is possibility of bus being late.
3. I hope the car reaching soon.
- (B) When a Plural Noun ends in “s”, as;
1. I like the boys playing hockey.
2. She wants the girls being present
3. I want the toys being imported.
- (C) When Gerund is used in the Passive form:
1. He was beingsent to jail.
2. Shoaib was being dismissed from service.
3. Students were being taught a lesson.
Difference between Gerund and Present Participle
- Gerund and present Participle both are a form of verb which ends in “ing”, as;
(A) Gerund is a partly a verb and partly a noun.
(B) Participle is partly a verb and partly an adjective. Gerund is verb-noun whereas participle is verb-adjective
He is fond of playing cards.
He is tired of walking.
I like smiling.
Playing cards, he set to work.
Walking along the road, he is tired.
She went away smiling.
More Difference between Gerund and Present Participle:
Gerund (Compound Noun)
Participle (Verbal Adjective)
A singing hall.
A sleeping room.
A travelling uniform.
A smiling look.
A swimming costume.
A singing boy.
A sleeping baby.
A travelling party.
A smiling girl.
A swimming person.
- Note: In the examples above, we find one word common in every two sentences but the second is different. We see that when the “ing” verb is followed by a person, it forms verbial adjective but when it followed by an inanimate thing, it forms a compound